We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byBrandon Sparks
Modified over 3 years ago
© NERC All rights reserved UK Shale gas: How much gas? How safe to extract? Prof Mike Stephenson British Geological Survey
© NERC All rights reserved Two main questions How much gas is there? o Is it worth investing? o Is it worth thinking about risks and regulation if gas extraction never happens? How safe is it to extract? o What are the main risks? o What science can be done to understand risks
© NERC All rights reserved How much gas is there? Reserve and resource Resource figure -amount of gas in the ground (some of which might never be accessible) Reserve figure -more sophisticated measure - amount of gas that you might be able extract given economics and other factors. Recovery factor - proportion of the total gas resource that can be extracted and is often expressed as a percentage
© NERC All rights reserved How much gas is there? Variation in estimates and recovery factors BGS approximate reserve estimates for DECC in 2010 - 5.3 tcf (150 BCM) Advanced Resources (2011) which listed 97 tcf GIP and 20 tcf recoverable resources for the UK Cuadrillas Lancashire licence their 1200 square kilometres licence area 200 tcf GIP IGas acreage first estimate GIIP 800mmboe, then changed to c.1,600mmboe (millions barrels of oil equivalent - 9.23 tcf) Eden Energy 7 licences in South Wales GIIP) – 34.198 tcf ; Recoverable Volume – 12.799 tcf of gas. Dart Energy Original Gas in Place (OGIP) of 65.56 tcf
© NERC All rights reserved How safe to extract?
© NERC All rights reserved Main hazards/concerns Earthquakes Integrity of well casing and groundwater contamination Radioactivity Transportation of equipment, materials and wastes to and from the site; Emissions to air Noise Large volumes of water for fracking Surface spillages of chemicals and waste waters
© NERC All rights reserved Largest on 1 April magnitude 2.3 felt >50 people
© NERC All rights reserved Comparison of signals Comparison of signals from the 1 April and 27 May Waveforms very similar, so similar origin BGS concluded that the earthquakes were a direct consequence of the fluid injection during fracking
© NERC All rights reserved Management of future tremors Cuadrilla commissioned reports on the tremors DECC commissioned an expert group to look at the reports and make recommendations Small pre-injection and monitoring before the main injection. Growth direction should be monitored and monitoring system for automatic locations and magnitudes of any seismic events in near real-time. Operations should be stopped and remedial action instituted, if events of magnitude 0.5 ML or above are detected. UK Govt yet to make a decision and recommendations
© NERC All rights reserved Groundwater and rock stress baseline studies How background methane is there in groundwater? Which rocks are stressed already so should be avoided for fracking
© NERC All rights reserved Commons Select Committee Call for evidence on the Impact of Shale Gas on Energy Markets What are the estimates for the amount of shale gas in place in the UK, Europe, and the rest of the world, and what proportion is recoverable? Why are the estimates for shale gas so changeable? What are the prospects for offshore shale gas in the UK Continental Shelf? Should the UK consider setting up a wealth fund with the tax revenue from shale gas? What have been the effects of shale gas on the LNG industry? Could shale gas lead to the emergence of a single, global gas market? What are the effects on investment in lower-carbon energy technologies? What is the potential impact on climate change objectives of greater use of shale gas?
© NERC All rights reserved Conclusions Resources and reserves estimates in Britain and Europe vary widely This is affecting investor confidence; also policy makers aren't sure what to do…. Main British environmental concern has been earthquakes. Studies recommend traffic light system to manage tremors BGS has initiated groundwater and rock stress baseline studies Commons Select Committee Call 14 th Licensing Round
© NERC All rights reserved Extra slides for discussion?
© NERC All rights reserved Shale basics Grey or black, soft Fine grained 70% of the worlds surface rocks are sedimentary; 50% of those are shale. Contain ~95 % of the organic matter in sedimentary rocks 1 mm What is shale gas?
© NERC All rights reserved Where does the organic material come from? Land plant material and seawater algae collect in mud Older, deeper shale layer What is shale gas?
© NERC All rights reserved 500 m 0 m What is shale gas? Shale buried Biological decay – biogenic methane Organic matter cooked – thermogenic methane Old deep shale layer Burial over millions of years
© NERC All rights reserved Conventional and unconventional
© NERC All rights reserved Sand grain gas 0.25mm shale sandstone Conventional and unconventional
© NERC All rights reserved Adsorbed gas and gas in pores Pore space gas Adsorbed gas calculation of gas in place per unit volume We have to measure how much shale Conventional and unconventional
© NERC All rights reserved Shale layer sandstone Cap rock Conventional: Trap Unconventional: Continuous accumulation Conventional and unconventional
© NERC All rights reserved Fracking basics Cracks the shale High pressure water or nitrogen, 350-700 bar (350 to 700 atmospheres) Conventional and unconventional
© NERC All rights reserved Contamination from fracking? Osborn et al. 2011, PNAS Studied: Methane in shallow water wells in shale gas areas measured methane content and δ 13 C
© NERC All rights reserved Not peer reviewed Dec 2011 Molofsky et al. 2011
© NERC All rights reserved Molofsky et al. 2011
© NERC All rights reserved The Blackpool region - low seismicity even for the UK. 2.5 in 1970 5 km south-west of Blackpool. number of smaller earthquake immediately offshore. The magnitude 3.7 Ulverston earthquake 28 April 2009 Blackpool seismicity
© NERC All rights reserved How much gas is there? Complex terminology Terms for resources and reserves TermAcronymSummary Resource How much gas is in the ground Original gas in placeOGIPTotal volume of gas Gas (initially) in placeGIIP/GIPTotal volume of gas Ultimately recoverable Total recoverable volume Technically recoverable Limited by technology Economically recoverable Limited by economics Reserve How much gas could be extracted ReservesTotal producible gas Proved reserves1P Probability of reserves (proven) Median figure of reserves 2PProven and probable High figure of reserves3PProved, probable and possible
© NERC All rights reserved Damage very unlikely to have been caused by earthquake
© NERC All rights reserved Is shale gas a global game- changer? Mike Stephenson.
Shale gas and fracking: fact and fiction Mike Stephenson British Geological Survey.
∂ Some ideas…. Petroleum Geologist Mining, minerals & resources Use geology and geophysics to locate hydrocarbons Work on drilling platforms to extract.
Powered by Rock Dr Liam Herringshaw Earth's Energy Systems.
Developing U.S. Shale Gas and Oil Resources: Problems and Prospects for the Next Decade Peter D. Blair, Executive Director NRC Division on Engineering.
MARCELLUS SHALE Natural Gas in Pennyslvania. Where is Marcellus Shale in PA? Marcellus Shale The contour lines tell thickness of the shale. Pink =
To Frack or not to Frack, That is the Question Fred Aminzadeh Executive Director, USC Induced Seismicity Consortium (ISC) Science Matters California Science.
Unconventional Natural Gas By Adrian Casaday, Caroline Dykes, Alyssa Hooks, & Marnee Kirkpatrick.
By Amanda Weinstein Swank Program in Rural-Urban Policy Ohio Fracking 101: Technology, Regulation,
Managing environmental risks from shale gas exploration – the UK’s experience so far Dr Tony Grayling Head of Climate Change and Communities Environment.
Environmental monitoring of shale gas operations in the UK Simon Talbot - Managing Director GGS.
Hydraulic Fracturing or “Fracking”. Natural Gas: Clean Energy? Natural gas power plants produce: half as much CO 2 (greenhouse gas) less than a third.
Introduction to fracking and implications for Northwest GA MADDIE BESS, BERRY COLLEGE GEOLOGY STUDENT AND SYNOVUS SCHOLAR ADVISED BY DR. TAMIE J JOVANELLY,
Aberdeen University Trading and Investment Society Energy Sector Overview 30/10/13.
Fracking By Tuvia Reback. What is Fracking? Fracking Process that U.S. and other countries use to remove natural gas from shale rock pores deep underground.
Let your voice be heard! Presentation by Sean Mullin Legislative Aide Delegate Shane Robinson District 39.
Fig. 16-2, p. 357 Oil and natural gas Floating oil drilling platform Oil storage Coal Contour strip mining Oil drilling platform on legs Geothermal energy.
Myths And Facts About Fracking March Hydraulic Fracturing aka “Fracking” Hydraulic fracturing is the use of water (98.5%), sand (1%) and chemicals.
A quick guide to fracking. What is fracking? Fracking is an extraction technique for crude oil and natural gas. Technically the process is called hydraulic.
Fracking 101 Gordon J. Aubrecht, II Sustainable Delaware, Earth Day, 22 April 2012.
FRACKING, FLOCCING, AND FRACK-SAND MINING Kelvin S. Rodolfo, Professor Emeritus Department of Earth & Environmental Science University of Illinois at Chicago.
Shale gas extraction in the UK: a review of hydraulic fracturing Ben Koppelman Science Policy Centre.
Environmental implications of hydraulic fracturing and shale gas drilling in the United States Avner Vengosh Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University.
Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Coal. Formation of Petroleum and Natural Gas Energy came to the earth in the form of sunlight hundreds of millions of years.
Is Natural Gas the Answer?. What is natural gas?
Fracking 101. Fracking is a debated environmental and political issue. Industry’s insist it is a safe and economical source of clean energy; critics,
Shale gas resource estimates: methodology and uncertainties Prof. Zoe Shipton Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Strathclyde.
Shale Oil Exploration & Development Background and Environmental Impacts Dr Ian Campbell CGeol FGS.
Shale Gas Exploration & Development Background and Environmental Impacts Dr Ian Campbell CGeol FGS.
Rotary Club of Baldock 18 th February 2015 Rotarian Keith Tovey ( 杜伟贤 ) Fracking A solution to the UK Energy Problems or An unacceptable step too far?
Part Four, Issue 7 Oil and Natural Gas. Objectives After reading the assigned chapter and reviewing the materials presented the students will be able.
Lecture Outlines Physical Geology, 14/e Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Plummer, Carlson &
Shale Gas: Manageable Gamechanger Ronald Bailey May, 25, 2011 American Enterprise Institute.
Fossil Fuels What is a Fossil Fuel?. Fossil Fuels Energy sources formed from the remains of once living organisms. Energy sources formed from the remains.
R K Jain. CO 2 emission responsible for global warming Development process to go unhalted. Ways and means to be found for controlling and abating CO 2.
Energy and Oil LT 8A: Describe the importance of net energy and discuss the implications of using oil to produce energy.
NS4054 Fall Term 2015 Handbook of Oil Politics Paul Sullivan – Oil Supply.
1.What is shale gas? 2.What is good about shale gas? 3.Where is shale gas found? 4.What is the special technology needed for shale gas? 5.What are the.
Hydraulic Fracturing Tom Carr, Lauren Dynes, and Pete Strader.
Hydraulic fracturing or “Fracking” Truth about Fracking, Chris Mooney, Scientific American, November 2011.
Energy & Its Impact on Global Society Jerome K. Williams, Ph.D. Saint Leo University Dept. Mathematics & Sciences.
Torey VanSickle,Aaron Koch Travis Day, Sam Mwangi.
Environmental Management of Hydraulic Fracturing in Alberta West Central Stakeholders Group November 21, 2012 Steve Wallace Alberta Environment and Sustainable.
BASIC TERMS AND CONCEPTS (1) Petroleum: refers to crude oil and natural gas or simply oil and gas. (2) Crude oil: refers to hydrocarbon mixtures produced.
Chapter 11 Fossil Fuels. Overview of Chapter 11 o Energy Sources and Consumption o How Fossil Fuels are Formed o Coal Coal Reserves and Mining Coal Reserves.
Fossil fuel demand risk/Fracking Craig Mackenzie, Head of Sustainability Scottish Widows Investment Partnership.
International Association of Oil and Gas Producers Europe’s Indigenous Oil and Gas Production GSE Workshop Brussels – 24th May 2007.
Current state of regulation of shale gas regulation in the UK Dr Sanna 12 March
Unconventional energy sources - a new European perspective? Istvan Gyerman University of Pecs, Faculty of Business and Economy Energy Security: How to.
Geologic Resources: Nonrenewable Mineral and Energy Resources Chapter 15 “Mineral resources are the building blocks on which modern society depends. Knowledge.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.