CARBOHYDRATES 4 calories/gram 1.Simple: Sugar! Fructose = fruit Lactose = milk Maltose = grains Sucrose = table sugar Good sources: fruit, milk, grains Bad sources: candy, soda, white bread
CARBOHYDRATES 3 Types 2.Complex: (Better for you) Starches = sugars linked together –During digestion body turns complex carbs into glucose (what the body uses for energy). If not used for energy stored as glycogen (in muscle and liver). If too many carbs eaten and can not be used as energy or stored, turned into adipose tissue. Good sources: whole grains, vegetables
Complex Carbs Cont. Fiber 3. Fiber = found in veggies, fruits and grains, not digested. –Helps move waste through digestive system. –Helps prevent heart disease, colon cancer, and promotes healthy digestive system. Americans need 30 grams a day!! How many are you getting????
PROTEINS 4 calories/gram Builds and maintains body tissue. Amino Acids = 20 building blocks of protein. 9 essential that your body does not make. 2 types of protein Complete = contain all amino acids that the body needs. Fish, meat, poultry, eggs. Incomplete = foods that lack some essential amino acids. Nuts, whole grains, seeds.
FATS 9 calories/gram Brain development, blood clotting, and controlling inflammation. Healthy hair, skin and nails. Store fat soluble vitamins. 2 Types 1.Saturated (Limit): animal fat and tropical oils. Usually solid. High intake result in heart disease. Examples: beef, pork, eggs, and dairy 2.Unsaturated (Good): vegetable fats. Examples: olive oil, canola, corn oil. Lower risk of heart disease. 3.Trans (Bad): Be careful of oils that add extra hydrogen to become saturated (hydrogenation).