Presentation on theme: "Approvals LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL EMC Compatibility in Europe John Molyneux Senior Consultant."— Presentation transcript:
Approvals LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL EMC Compatibility in Europe John Molyneux Senior Consultant
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Observations and Conclusions It is almost impossible to separate the demonstration of electromagnetic compatibility from the demonstration of safety. This is because, although systems interfering with each-other can be a nuisance it is only when they affect safety that the costs of incompatibility become unacceptable. Hence much of the process is primarily concerned with Safety.
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Observations and Conclusions All respondents from EU have Implemented Directives In most cases this has had the effect of divorcing the technical and procedural processes Scope of EMC is ill defined, especially in high level documents Many aspects of EMC are omitted or are considered to be somebody elses problem Most Countries have particular concerns and concentrate on these
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Observations and Conclusions Many local standards are in a state of flux Newer lines are migrating to ERTMS Several Respondents changed local requirements, or revised local standards during the course of this study Newer Equipment sometimes lies outside existing standards e.g. Wi-Fi
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Observations and Conclusions EN standards ……. A Common Ground? 50121Railway applications Electromagnetic compatibilitybetween parts of the railway system and the outside world. 50128Railway applications Communications, signalling and processing systems Software 50129Railway applications Communication, signalling and processing systems Safety for signalling 50163Railway applications Supply voltages of traction systems Describes and defines supply systems and variations
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Observations and Conclusions EN standards ……. A Common Ground? 50238Railway applications Compatibility between rolling stock and train detection systems- 1)generic methodologies; 2) Track Circuits 3) Axle counters. 50367Railway applications Current collection systems Indirectly affects EMC as the sliding contact is a major source of emissions. 50388Railway applications Power supply and rolling stock Technical criteria pertaining to protection, operation and testing. 50500Measurement procedures and limits to be applied to the evaluation of human exposure to magnetic fields. Standards are not Comprehensive Neither are they Universally Applicable
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Observations and Conclusions Railways have long lifetimes 30-50 years (with refurbishment) Cost of scrapping older systems just for ease of EMC demonstration is prohibitive and does not make economic sense It is therefore a fact of life that all countries will have to keep their older EMC methods for some considerable time.
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Observations and Conclusions Although not mandatory, the Infrastructure manager still plays a large part in the approval process for new rolling stock. The process approvals bodies do not generally have the detailed technical knowledge to assess systems within their structure. Detailed Technical Knowledge is being divested to third parties who may only have limited scope within the process
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Train Detection Possible the most critical part of EMC from a rolling stock perspective. It is also the most technically Diverse Primarily conducted Interference into track Solution……….Measure the interference and apply a limit
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL The Universal Gabarit Examination from Traction Point of View shows that this is Not a Credible Way Forward.
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Train Detection Until ERTMS level 3 is Universally Implemented Limit Systems on New Lines to Preferred Types What about New Types…… How are they Qualified. Is this anti-competitive?..... Does it contravene free market principles Dose it discourage Research and Innovation?
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Train Detection Until ERTMS level 3 is Universally Implemented Use a common method of measurement, analysis and data recording according to EN50238 technical appendices Open Points on the interpretation of some clauses…. How many tests or how much testing….. environment….. location
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Train Detection Until ERTMS level 3 is Universally Implemented Limit Systems on New Lines to Preferred Types Use a common method of measurement, analysis and data recording according to EN50238 technical appendices Re-analyse test data to show compatibility within different countries Still Not a Universal Solution as there are Open Points on the interpretation, nature and analysis of transient phenomena
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Lineside Systems No universally applicable limits or methodologies Coupling is magnetic or capacitive and is highly sensitive to geometry Considered to be outside the scope of Rolling Stock Compatibility by some but not part of the Command and Control system either. Sheer Number of possible interactions is massive and complex. Some common ground in the determination of psophometric current Many-long range systems are migrating to optical fibre Voice communications are increasingly becoming the minority traffic. Digital communications operate at higher frequencies and have different problems.
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Energy Systems Energy Systems are generally well covered by International Standards Local limits on harmonic distortion are defined by the generating authority and hence are outside the control of the Railway. Rolling stock will still have to be designed to comply with the generating authoritys policy Considered to be outside the scope of Rolling Stock Compatibility by some. The infrastructure should be designed to be tolerant to the trains demand and regeneration
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Radio Frequency Systems EN 50121 seems to be an almost Universal standard for Radio Frequency Systems Individual requirements for train communications are contained within the CCS TSI However EN 50121 does not give comprehensive frequency coverage on all aspects and, in particular, does not cover intentional transmitters
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Other Systems Included because of synergy Although the EMF directive is not yet in force it is due to come in force soon. Compatibility with human beings will need to be considered in any safety submission EN 50121 is required under The EMC directive however more than a third of the respondents stated that the EMC directive was not used in their rolling stock compatibility case.
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Summary This project has documented the details of the EMC demonstration process that are of most concern within each member state. It is believed that the study provides a good description of the full vertical scope of the process, from legislative mandates through methods to detailed technical requirements of the EMC demonstration. However it is not fully comprehensive due to the difficulties in obtaining the wide scope of information required in an accessible form. Further consolidation of the methods at the detail stages may be beneficial.
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Summary The details of the technical assessment of electromagnetic compatibility across the member states of the European railway area are complex and different. However the underlying technical assessment methods, based on common physics, are similar. The degree of state involvement in the processes is very varied : from purely documentary to detailed technical involvement. The documentation processes, to comply with the directives are in a much more advanced state than the technical processes.
Approvals :Conformance LLOYDS REGISTER RAIL Summary The authors would like to thank all those members and representatives from the member states who have contributed to this project AustriaFinlandItalyPolandSwitzerland BelgiumFrance LatviaPortugalUnited Kingdom BulgariaGermanyLithuaniaRomania Czech Republic GreeceLuxembourgSlovakia DenmarkHungaryNetherlandsSpain EstoniaIrelandNorwaySweden
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