Presentation on theme: "EuropeAid Decentralisation in Madagascar: A virtual process! ; Lines of accountability: What changes with decentralization? ACORDS: a laboratory Food for."— Presentation transcript:
EuropeAid Decentralisation in Madagascar: A virtual process! ; Lines of accountability: What changes with decentralization? ACORDS: a laboratory Food for thought; The reality: each set of actor runs a empty box in a authistic manner; Tools & methods to wake the boxes and connected them (accountability practices); Findings after six years of implementation; Some Principles of a support programme in absence of a country led strategy PROGRAMME ACORDS (MADAGASCAR) HOW TO USE PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY AS AN ENTRY DOOR FOR SUPPORT TO LOCAL ACCOUNTABILITY PROCESS Just un exemple, not a model!!!
EuropeAid Decentralization Adds a new tier of Government at local level,with elected local authorities, accountable to citizens and responsible to provide a range of public goods and services Three lines of accountability Downward accountability of LG to citizens Horizontal accountability within LG and administration Upward accountability of LG to central Government Formal & Informal accountability lines Citizens can control LG primarily by linking up with political representatives mobilising a local traditional leader (informal downwards, a councillor (formal downwards)... Accountability & Public Service delivery LG is embedded in broad accountability web The functioning of local accountability is one of the factors that influences quality of public service delivery Understanding the complexity and interconnections! DECENTRALISATION AND CHANGING ACCOUNTABILITY LINES
EuropeAid DECENTRALISATION IN MADAGASCAR: A VIRTUAL PROCESS!! POLICY 1.Political decentralization: 1994: 2.Deconcentration process : Fiscal decentralization: A nearly dead process! Resources transferred to municipalities = 3, 5% of total public expenditure; IN PRACTICE 1.The decentralization policy offers a good framework, but its implementation is still awaited: 2.The blockage is at central government level, where the practical implications of the policy have yet to be understood 3.A process wihout leadership; 4.Decentralization is not high on the social/national debate (radio/newspaper, assembly) 5.Sector Ministries ignore LG. 6.Donors practice: funding of NGOs projects and sector policies that bypass LGs Both Process launched in a autistic manner
EuropeAid LINES OF ACCOUNTABILITY: WHAT CHANGES WITH DECENTRALIZATION IN MADAGASCAR? Situation before 1994! District (112) Citizens Deconcentrated Services of Line Ministries at Region level (Health, education, roads and water) Province (5) Deconcentrated Services of Line Ministries at District level (Health, education) Central Government Provide Service Etat Civil.. Policy & Fiscal effort
EuropeAid LINES OF ACCOUNTABILITY: WHAT CHANGES WITH DECENTRALIZATION IN MADAGASCAR? Situation Between 1994 & 2005 District (112) Citizens Deconcentrated Services of Line Ministries at Region level (Health, education, roads and water) Province (5) Deconcentrated Services of Line Ministries at District level (Health, education) Central Government Basic Services(Health, education…) Etat Civil.. Policy & Fiscal effort Local Gov (LG) Basic Services(Health, education…)
EuropeAid LINES OF ACCOUNTABILITY: WHAT CHANGES WITH DECENTRALIZATION IN MADAGASCAR? Situation from 2005 until 2011 District Citizens Local Gov (LG) Deconcentrated Services of Line Ministries at Region level (Health, education, roads and water) Region (9) Deconcentrated Services of Line Ministries at District level (Health, education) Central Government Coordination ??? Planing, Implementation and managing PBS Provide personnel Quality of Service Institutionnel Support Control « Ex-post » of LG accounts Technical Support Coordination DS & LG ??????? Political account & control Policy & Fiscal effort
EuropeAid ACORDS: A LABORATORY OF DECENTRALIZATION PROCESS! Food for thought about national policy on decentralization!; Entry door: Take into account in an effective and practical way the transfer of responsibility for the provision of a range of social services (health, education, public markets, and secondary roads) from Line Ministries to LG as defined by law in the decentralization process framework. Learning by doing approach Put the money at the center! Approach adopted: We put the money in place (into the LG budget) at the outset. This approach bring about: (i) a capacity building effect based on learning on the job (capacities will be the result of the action and not a precondition for receiving funds) (ii) a significant or even drastic change in the role of the Implementation Unit which will have to evolve towards advising and facilitating this learning by doing process How to ensure direct founding of LG budget? (2003): Call of proposals. Now: Direct Grant (monopole de fait) Rules of the game: they push to activate linkages and joint work among institutions involved in public service delivery (not had-oc support mechanism!) PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY BECOMES A ENTRY DOOR TO WAKE-UP/BUILD THE ACCOUNTABILITY LINES
EuropeAid SITUATION AT LOCAL LEVEL A SET OF EMPTY BOXES THAT RUNS IN A AUTHISTIC MANNER! At Local Level Local Governments Empty boxes, with erratic behaviour operate like free electrons in an unfinished framework!!!!!! LG does not have permanent Civil Servants Staff Procurement systems not adapted to local realities; LG are not attached to the Public Treasury Administrative Courts still under construction Support & control mechanisms based on Districts are not working properly Civil Society/Citizens Citizen in rural areas are scared of the State and see LG as something distant There is not one single CS at local level Citizens or survivors? Tradition of community driven approaches to have access to basic services Citizen in rural areas refrain from directly scrutinising their leaders and believe one should predominantly respect authority Parental view of local government (government takes cares of citizens rather than citizens control government) Participatory mechanism often remains ritualistic in practice rather than enabling accountability at the local level or improved service delivery.
EuropeAid District-Region & Civil Servants (CS) of line Ministries at Local level Deconcentrated levels fail to adapt to their new role as assistants and supervisors of the elected governments and Districts Unclear division of task and responsibilities between national ministries, deconcentrated levels and LG There is not overall human resource management policy of the public sector LG dont trust Districts & CS of line ministries Civil Servants and Districts dont know decentralization principles and its practical meaning for them; nobody explained to them! LG-districts and Civil Servants line ministries are in the process of getting to know to each other Support to LG: What does it mean? Coordination & Support is understood as command; SITUATION AT LOCAL LEVEL A SET OF EMPTY BOXES THAT RUNS IN A AUTHISTIC MANNER!
EuropeAid Local Governements CitizensCitizens Civil Servant of line ministries at local level Decentralization Public Service delivery Quality Equity Territorial Administration THE QUALITY OF THE CONNECTIONS DETERMINES DE QUALITY OF PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY!
EuropeAid Transparency of budget allocation and use made information available and assure the pressence of local media Funds supporting LG include strong incentives and monitoring mechanism to ensure Functioning of Accountability mechanism drawn by law; Procurement system tailored to LG including participation of citizens & Councils in local tenders ; Dissemination at local level of information concerning budget, tenders, expenditures overview, subcontracts (radio one of the most effective information channels as a result of the language used and the high coverage rate!) Results of Annual audits (technical and financial) discussed in workshops which brings together Districts, Executive, Council, and citizens involved in Community Committee in charge of tenders TOOLS AND METHODS TO WAKE UP ACOUNTABILITY PRACTICES
EuropeAid WHAT WE LEARNED ABOUT HOW TO IMPROVE LOCAL ACCOUNTABILITY Answerability and controllability channels The institutional context obliges LG to be answerable to the central State Institutional mechanism favouring downward answerability should be encouraged Need to promote state-society answerability mechanism at the local level through: Social audits bringing together LG, CS of line ministries & community; Community dialogue platforms and radio talk shows in vernacular language; Look at the electoral system! Local answerability is underpinned by different popular perceptions of authority Information is the key! Explore the utilisation of Local Media; Increasing transparency and availability of key local governance documents (budget, expenditure overview, subcontracts..) creates a strong fundament for more effective local accountability mechanism Effective information channels Informal institutions (local assembly of elderly, traditional authorities..), radio FINDINGS AFTER SIX YEARS OF IMPLEMENTATION
EuropeAid WHAT WE LEARNED ABOUT HOW TO IMPROVE LOCAL ACCOUNTABILITY Participation Participation in local governance, by itself, does not necessarily strengthen accountability or service delivery; Well intended participatory mechanism often remain ritualistic in practice rather than enabling accountability at the local level or improved service delivery; Participatory platforms are most effective when institutionalised, conducted regularly and accessible to formal as well as informal institutions; Central question for participation to become effective on which terms are participatory platforms set-up, who defines the agenda, which influence do actors have on final decision making and, crucially, whose voices are actually invited and heard? Sustainability lies with Institutionalisation The ultimate form of sustainability content or practice of a programme is institutionalised in government policy or decision-making procedures in the partner country. SOME FINDINGS AFTER SIX YEARS OF IMPLEMENTATION
EuropeAid IDENTIFICATION/FORMULATION STAGE Encourage a public discussion on the question of WHY the decentralization process has been launched in the country; Avoid the copying and pasting of experiences of other countries and concentrate instead rather on understanding the particular context in which these reforms toke place, why the particular solution was chosen (PE perspective!) ; Promote an endogenous solution; Dont leave it to the external consultants. Adopting an « open approach », be able modify the implementation strategies, the pace and tools to made them fit to the situation on the ground The path towards the programme goals cannot be planned in advance Avoid too much detail at the formulation stage: There is no detailed road map. It is a question of dealing with problems as they arise; The conception then is not something formulating at the outset and imposed on the project, but is rather the contrary STRATEGY TO IMPROVE LOCAL ACCOUNTABILITY Explore the possibility of using Public Service Delivery as possible entry points for support to local accountability process Put the money in place (into the municipal budget) at the outset to allow LG to assume in an effective and practical way the transfer of responsibility in the decentralization process : Mechanisms assuring direct founding of municipalities should activate linkages and joint work among institutions involved in public service delivery "GPS OF A SUPPORT PROGRAMME IN THE ABSENCE OF A COUNTRY-LED STRATEGY FOR IMPLEMENTING DECENTRALIZATION
EuropeAid IMPLEMENTATION Capacity building approach based on learning on the job The starting point is the understanding of real situation at local level. This understanding is updated continuously. Tools and methods proposed fits to the real problems at the right time PEA is doing every time! Human relationships are at the core of the Programmes management. Implementing a programme is much more a question of managing human relationships than a technical one This requires human skills, a flexible balance of proximity and distance, of trust and requirement, of latitude and discipline. In crucial respects it is more a job for an artist than for a technician PIU FACILITATION UNIT! To maintain a helicopter like overview of every aspect of the project in order to create a learning on the ground environment; To implement the program in a flexible way to respond to situations and circumstances as they evolve from day to day To disseminate lessons from experience to local and national authorities as well as to the donors involved in the decentralization arena … "GPS OF A SUPPORT PROGRAMME IN THE ABSENCE OF A COUNTRY-LED STRATEGY FOR IMPLEMENTING DECENTRALIZATION