Presentation on theme: "1 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Map of Soil Susceptibility to Compaction in Europe Beata Houšková - Luca Montanarella Land Management and Natural Hazards."— Presentation transcript:
1 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Map of Soil Susceptibility to Compaction in Europe Beata Houšková - Luca Montanarella Land Management and Natural Hazards Unit Institute for Environment & Sustainability JRC TP 280 Ispra (VA), 21020 Italy The Institute for Environment and Sustainability
2 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Why EU Level of intervention? Soil degradation affects other environmental areas Distortion of the functioning of the internal market Transboundary impact Food safety International dimension
3 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Three necessary steps of Strategies 1.COMMUNICATION COM(2006) 231 on the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection 2.DIRECTIVE COM(2006) 232 establishing a framework for the protection of soil and amending Directive 2004/35/EC 3.IMPACT ASSESSMENT SEC(2006) 620 of the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection Adopted by the European Commission on 22 nd of September 2006
4 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Step 3: The Impact Assessment Two sections: (SEC (2006) 1165 and SEC(2006) 620) The economic, social and environmental impacts of the proposed measures.
5 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Common criteria of risk identification for five major soil threats in Europe -Identification of factors/hazards related to the threat (external factors); -Characterization of the receptor relevant to the threat (internal soil factors); -Performance specification, model selection (with data requirements). ESBN 2006: the report Common Criteria for Risk Area Identification according to Soil Threats.
6 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Common criteria for Soil Compaction risk identification
7 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Soil compaction as part of STS Soil compaction is a soil degradation process, which can have natural or human origin and very often it is the integration of both. Soil compaction occurs when an applied soil stress exceeds the strength of the soil. Compaction is a process of densification and distortion in which total and air-filled porosity and permeability are reduced, strength is increased, soil structure partly destroyed and many changes are induced in the soil fabric and in various behaviour characteristics. Compaction leads to the change in soil aggregates or particles arrangement in the whole soil profile or in one or several layers. Soil compaction is a degradation process with negative impact on the environment as a whole.
8 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Driving Forces Pressures State Impacts Responses Agriculture intensification Land use practices continuous cultivation deforestation European soil protection policy On-site: soil degradation compaction loss of structure Good agricultural practice - low ground pressures - timing of cultivations - alleviation measures - conservation tillage On-site - reduction in water storage capacity - increased soil erosion Off-site - pollution of surface waters - effects on regional drainage - flooding Soil Protection Strategy Framework (DPSIR) for Soil Compaction
10 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Depth (cm) 0 25 50 75 100 125 0 25 50 75 100 125 compacted layer percolation / infiltration runoff [erosion. seepage to groundwater pollution] to surface water buffering non-compacted soil compacted soil filtering Bulk density higher than 1.9 g.cm -3 stops the ability of plant roots to grow
11 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Natural Soil Compaction Soil texture Generally, soils with high amount of clay (>35% or more) are more susceptible to compaction in comparison to sandy soils with lower amount of clay (<35%). Especially, clayey soils with low amount of silt fraction are susceptible to the compaction processes. Soil type Type of horizons and their arrangement in soil profile (argillic horizon); type of soil formation processes: illimerisation, gleying or podsolization
12 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Soil units (WRB –1994)Susceptibility to natural compaction Histosolslow Anthrosolslow Rendzic Leptosolslow other Leptosolslow Andosolslow Arenosolslow Chernozemslow Phaeozemslow Mollic Fluvisols and Mollic Gleysoils medium The other Fluvisolsmedium Eutric Cambisolsmedium Dystric Cambisols and Umbrisolsmedium Haplic Luvisolsmedium The other Gleysolshigh Podzolshigh Planosolshigh Albic Luvisols and Glossisolshigh Stagnosolshigh
13 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Influence of the origin of compaction on the soil profile properties - Natural soil compaction
14 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Soil compaction induced by human activities – secondary compaction Induced by intensive or incorrect land use (agriculture, forest management); Low amount of deep rooting structure forming plants in crop rotation, e. g. fodder crops; High amount of root crops (plants risky for soil properties stability: root system, cultivation practises with high amount of crossing on the field); Low amount of organic residues.
15 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Precompression stress at a given pore water pressure pF 1.8 for topsoils of Europe in relation to a given low topsoil load (tyre inflation pressure: 60 kPa), high topsoil stress: 200 kPa). Classification of the effective soil strength by the relationship of precompression stress to soil pressure: >1.5 very stable, elastic deformation, 1.5-1.2 stable, 1.2-0.8 labile, >0.8 unstable, additional plastic deformation, (author: Prof. Rainer Horn).
16 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Influence of the origin of compaction on the soil profile properties – Human induced Soil compaction
17 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Author: R. Jones
18 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Subsoil Susceptibility to Compaction
19 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Main steps in second version map construction Delineation of areas susceptible to natural compation Delineation of areas susceptible to human – induced compaction Delineation of areas susceptible to combined compation
20 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Source of data European Soil Database (STU, SMU units) 1:1 M and/or 1 km grid MARS 50 km grid soil suitability for different crops and evaluation of climate CAPRI 1 km grid the probability of crop cultivation according to the type of crop DTM Digital Terrain Model of spatial resolution 30 m (DTED Level 2 or SRTM 30); DTM 90m spatial resolution can give satisfactory results only for terrain relief of high variability. (Maximal slope (8%, 10%) admissible to heavy machines) EUROSTAT Statistical and economical data about number and types of machines, type of agriculture (rotation) and intensity of stock-raising.
21 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 European Soil Database The database consists from four components: 1.The Soil Geographical Database of Europe at scale 1:1,000,000 (SGDBE), which is a digitized European soil map and related attributes; 2.The PedoTransfer Rules Database (PTRDB), version 2.0, which holds a number of pedotransfer rules which can be applied to the SGDBE; 3.The Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europa (SPADBE); 4.The Database of Hydraulic Properties of European Soils (HYPRES).
22 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Structure of ESDB Coverage The digital form of the soil map in ArcInfo database consisting from geometric and semantic datasets; Polygons - with areas greaten than 25 km 2 ; polygon can belong just to 1 SMU Soil Mapping Units (SMU) – geometric part of ESDB. They are represented on the map at least by one polygon but can be composed of several polygons and comprise at least 1 STU – recommendation: max 5 STUs – soil associations Soil typological units (STU) – semantic part of ESDB. They define the soil type having the set of homogeneous properties for defined area. The sum of % of STUs in 1 SMU = 100%; Each STU must correspond at least to 5% of the total area of SMU, otherwise it is ignored.
24 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Natural compaction delineation Visualization of soil cover for whole area (practical visualization by database 1:250,000 sheets or by administrative units - NUTS). Elimination of areas unaffected by compaction. Realization: soil covers - (forest + built up areas + water bodies + devasted areas + rocks) – terrain with slope >10%. Result: agriculture areas potentially affected by compaction or susceptible to compaction.
25 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Result of this step: 3 maps STU according to their susceptibility to compaction Soil Texture Classes according to their susceptibility to compaction Intersection of susceptibility for compaction: soil type & texture
26 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Human-induced compaction delineation Delineation of areas with high percentage of farm larger then 50 ha delineation of areas with high probability of use of heavy machines (large parcels, large farms, heavy soils). Delineation of pastures with intensive grazing Delineation of areas with high percentage of root crops
27 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Presentation of Results Maps with polygons showing 4 classes of soil compaction 0 - no risk of compaction 1 - low risk of compaction 2 - medium risk of compaction 3 - high risk of compaction
28 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 EU Policy Issues Addressed by IES... GMES Kyoto Protocol Emission Trading EU Global Development Policies Fuel Directives Emissions from Road Transport Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) Water Framework Directive Marine Thematic Strategy Flood Risk Management European Flood Alert System Development Technical Body Soil Thematic Strategy Forest Focus Scientific Coordination Body Thematic Urban Strategy INSPIRE Technical Coordinator Renewable Energies & Electricity Efficiency ENERGY STAR Technical Coordinator Management of Natural Resources Environmental Technology Action Plan (ETAP) Radiation Environmental Monitoring European Information System Operator Environment and Health
29 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) No. 1782/2003 of 29 September 2003
31 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Overall objective Preventing further soil degradation and preserving its functions: –when soil is used and its functions are exploited, action has to be taken on soil use and management patterns, and –when soil acts as a sink/receptor of the effects of human activities or environmental phenomena, action has to be taken at source. Restoring degraded soils to a level of functionality consistent at least with current and intended use, thus also considering the cost implications of the restoration of soil.
32 5th ESSC congress–Palermo 07 Thank you for your interest !