NON-ENFORCEMENT OF HEIGHT ZONING MAY LEAD TO POUNDING BETWEEN BUILDINGS
Loss Estimation requires team-work among: q Geology q Seismology q Earthquake and structural engineering q Geotechnical engineering
Principal Components of Risk Analysis Hazard Analysis Modeling seismic sources Soil type and geological factors Attenuation modeling Vulnerability Analysis Assessment of the building stock Earthquake analysis Develop vulnerability curves Risk Analysis Calculation of Probabilistic Risk Curves
Calc. material losses Hazard Event nucleation Calculation of intensity Vulnerability Damage calculation Building stock Geotechnical background Principal Components of Earthquake Models
Attenuation Relations Strike-Slip Faults Joyner and Boore (1997) Sadigh (1997) Abrahamson and Silva (1997) Ambraseys et al (1999) Gülkan and Kalkan (2002) Subduction Zone Youngs (1997) Gregor (1997) Spudich et al. (1999) Dependent on: Earthq. Mag. Rupture Mech. Distance Signal Prop.
Estimation of Ground Motions during Probable Earthquakes
Soil Type and Amplification Sand and silt Stiff clay Rock Stiff clay Rock
Development of Damage Functions q Determination of typical structural types and their features based on design drawings q Analysis of earthquake response q Development of damage functions for each building type on basis of member damage q Determination of retrofit strategies and associated costs q Assembly of damage functions for each building type
Typical Structural Features q Structural characteristics ä Material type ä Plan area, story height, span widths, number of spans ä Number of stories q Design of Typical Buildings ä Design calculations ä Material properties ä Blueprint drawings
Structural Engineering Is: The Art of Using Materials (with properties that can only be estimated) To Build Real Structures (that can only be approximately analyzed) To Withstand Forces (that are not accurately known) So That Our Responsibility to Public Safety Is Satisfied!
Transition from Physical Damage to Financial Loss q There exists for each member type a damage level corresponding to the drift q There exists for each member type a retrofit procedure corresponding to each damage level q There exists for each retrofit procedure a corresponding retrofit cost %$
Risk Analysis q Calculation of material losses for probable (scenario) earthquakes q Calculation of risk curves q Assessment of regional risk q Determination of premiums based on regional risk by insurers