Presentation on theme: "Future water use and the challenge of hydropower development in western Balkan Future water use and the challenge of hydropower development in western."— Presentation transcript:
Future water use and the challenge of hydropower development in western Balkan Future water use and the challenge of hydropower development in western Balkan February 2013 Republic of Croatia Vesna Trbojevi ć,Mynistry of Agriculture, Water Management Directorate Mirjana Švonja, Croatian Waters
Water use Under the Croatian Water Act water use implies the abstraction, pumping and use of surface water and groundwater for various purposes. Water supply - public interest Technological and cooling purposes, irrigation, fishponds, exploitation of water power and other types of water use: - predominantly commercial interest - subject to market impacts The right to use water or water power is acquired on the basis of a concession contract (except for public water-no need) Concession giver is: - the ministry in charge of water - the government - the Croatian Parliament (for hydroelectric power more than 20 MW)
Quantity of water abstraction The greatest amount of abstracted water is provided for public water supply (app *10 9 m 3 per year). 88% of the abstracted drinking water quantities come from groundwater 12% comes from the surface water (watercourses and reservoirs). The public water supply systems cover: 94% of the total population in the Adriatic river basin district 84% of the total population in the Danube river basin district. 84% 94% Based on the concessions awarded, a total quantity of water which can be abstracted (not including fishponds and exploitation of water power) is: app. 1.13*10 9 m 3 per year
Total renewable water resources Water abstraction (l/s) Groundwater Surface water ( 61% ) ( 39% ) The total renewable water resources in Croatia is 112*10 9 m 3 of water per year. Abstracted quantities water is not significant (1% ) in relation to available water resources. Croatia has plenty of water, but local problems with the quantitative status of water are occasionally possible water being unevenly distributed in space and time.
Hydropower potential The overall water potential in the Republic of Croatia which is technically exploitable in the hydropower plants has been estimated at GWh/year. Small watercourses account for app GWh/year or around 10% of the total water potential GWh/year is currently used in the existing hydropower plants (49% of the total water potential). The most suitable locations for the development of hydropower plants have already been largely used. For further development of hydropower can be mostly used the remaining sites in the valleys with a potential impact on the regime of surface water and groundwater.
Production of electric power In the structure of the electric power system of the Republic of Croatia more than 50% of electric energy is imported, more than half of domestic output comes from hydropower plants The construction of hydropower plants was very intensive in the second half of the 20th century until the early 1990s, when it was mostly stopped. Priority was given to multifunctional systems for water regulation and water use. A number of multipurpose reservoirs have been constructed in order to use for: flood protection, provision of water for water supply, production of electric energy, provision of water for irrigation, regulation of the low water regime, sport and recreation.
Hydropower currently in operation In Croatia there are: 17 large hydropower plants (>10 MW) of storage and run-of-river type 15 small hydropower plants ( MW) 4 mini ( MW) and several micro hydropower plants (5-100 kW)
General information The biggest reservoirs are: Peru č a - the Cetina River (571*10 6 m 3 ) Kruš č ica - the Lika River (142*10 6 m 3 ) HE Zaku č ac - the largest hydropower plant which delivers a third of total hydropower in Croatia. HE Jaruga under waterfall on the Krka River is the second oldest hydropower plant in the world and the first one constructed in Europe. HE Velebit - only pumping hydropower plant in Croatia. The operation of certain hydropower plants is directly related to transboundary waters: HE Dubrovnik uses the water from the Bile ć a reservoir, HE Orlovac uses the water from the Buško blato, Mandak and Lipa reservoirs on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Large and some of the small hydropower plants
Planned constuction Construction foreseen in the near future: HE Podsused (43 MW) - the Sava River HE Kosinj (28 MW) - the Lika River HE Novo Virje (138 MW) - the Drava R. HE Ombla (68.5 MW) - the Ombla R. HE Dubrovnik 2 (300 MW) – water from the Bile ć a reservoir The reconstruction of the existing hydropower plants will also contribute to an increase in capacity. Croatia has set a goal of constructing a number of small hydropower plants (less than 5 MW) on 6 watercourses. 18 selected locations for the construction of small hydropower
Energy Development Strategy, 2009 (Official Gazette 130/2009) The Energy Development Strategy of the Republic of Croatia addresses the period until the year 2020 and pursues three basic energy-related objectives: Safe energy supply; Competitive energy system; Sustainable energy development. The newly installed capacities in 2020 will be 300 MW (including also HE Leš ć e put into operation in 2010, but excluding small hydropower plants as these are balanced in renewable energy). It is assumed that in the period the capacity will increase by 50 MW each year. No additional increase in hydropower capacity is foreseen after the year 2020.
Environmental aspects of construction of hydropower plants Significant impact on hydromorphological and ecological status of water, nature, cultural and historical heritage, forests, land, etc. With regard to the border and across border character of a great number of Croatian rivers, the process of planning and implementation of projects requires coordination with other countries. Significant impact on downstream flow (deepening of the original river bed, reducing sediment transport, erosion activate processes on the banks, lowering of the groundwater, etc.)