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Leadership and Safety Citizenship Behavior: The Role of Trust SHAMA DIDLA University of Aberdeen Supervision: Dr. Kathryn Mearns & Prof. Rhona Flin Sponsoring.

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Presentation on theme: "Leadership and Safety Citizenship Behavior: The Role of Trust SHAMA DIDLA University of Aberdeen Supervision: Dr. Kathryn Mearns & Prof. Rhona Flin Sponsoring."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leadership and Safety Citizenship Behavior: The Role of Trust SHAMA DIDLA University of Aberdeen Supervision: Dr. Kathryn Mearns & Prof. Rhona Flin Sponsoring company: Centrica Energy

2 Setting the scene: Piper Alpha (1988) Bhopal Gas Tragedy (1984) Industrial accidents: Bhopal Gas Tragedy (1984) Chernobyl nuclear plant (1986) Piper Alpha (1988) Attention tosafety management:Away from technicalapproach to human factors Core ingredient in shaping safety climate: Managements commitment to safety Leadership style of managers and supervisors

3 Transformation a l and Transactional Leadership: Bass (1985) Transactional Leadership (TA): An exchange relationship between leaders and followers. Transformational leadership (TF): Leaders motivate followers to achieve performance expectations by transforming followers attitudes and beliefs. Augmentation effect of TF over TA: TA Heightened motivation Peformance beyond Expectations i.e. Safety citizenship behaviours TF Expected performance

4 AIM Previous research focus: perceived safety climate (Barling, et al.,2002), safety consciousness, safety communication and safety commitment (Hofmann & Morgeson,1999). Previous research focus: perceived safety climate (Barling, et al.,2002), safety consciousness, safety communication and safety commitment (Hofmann & Morgeson,1999). Our aim: To understand the psychological mechanisms of the relationship between leadership and subordinates safety citizenship behaviors. Our aim: To understand the psychological mechanisms of the relationship between leadership and subordinates safety citizenship behaviors. Leadership Subordinates safety citizenship behaviour Psychological mechanisms Trust

5 Trust: The willingness of a party to be vulnerable to the actions of another party based on the expectation that the other will perform a particular action important to the trustor (Mayer, Davis, & Schoorman, 1995). The willingness of a party to be vulnerable to the actions of another party based on the expectation that the other will perform a particular action important to the trustor (Mayer, Davis, & Schoorman, 1995). Trust has been suggested as the foundation of safety culture (Reason, 1997). Trust has been suggested as the foundation of safety culture (Reason, 1997). Important for safety communication (Clarke, 1998) and safety initiatives (Donald & Young, 1996). Important for safety communication (Clarke, 1998) and safety initiatives (Donald & Young, 1996). Important ingredient in performing safely (Fleming & Lardner, 2001). Important ingredient in performing safely (Fleming & Lardner, 2001).

6 Safety Citizenship Behavior: An individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization (Dennis & Organ,1983). An individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization (Dennis & Organ,1983). Social Exchange Theory (Blau, 1964) Social Exchange Theory (Blau, 1964) SCB = helping + voicing ones opinions +exhibiting stewardship + civic virtue + whistle-blowing + changing ones workplace (Hofmann, Morgeson, & Gerras, 2003). SCB = helping + voicing ones opinions +exhibiting stewardship + civic virtue + whistle-blowing + changing ones workplace (Hofmann, Morgeson, & Gerras, 2003).

7 Method: Questionnaires distributed to 500 employees Questionnaires distributed to 500 employees 114 returns: 72 (workforce level) & 42 (supervisory level) 114 returns: 72 (workforce level) & 42 (supervisory level) Measures: Measures: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire - 45 items (Bass & Avolio, 1999) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire - 45 items (Bass & Avolio, 1999) Trust Climate and Safety Questionnaire - 24 items (Conchie, 2003) Trust Climate and Safety Questionnaire - 24 items (Conchie, 2003) Safety Citizenship Behavior Scale - 27 items (Hofmann, Morgeson, & Gerras, 2003) Safety Citizenship Behavior Scale - 27 items (Hofmann, Morgeson, & Gerras, 2003) Job categories: production, maintenance, administration, engineering Job categories: production, maintenance, administration, engineering Onshore: 78 Offshore : 35 Onshore: 78 Offshore : 35 Centrica: 70 Contracting company: 44 Centrica: 70 Contracting company: 44

8 Descriptives of the sample *p <.01 level VariablesMSDα Transformational leadership Contingent reward * 3. Management by exception *0.45* 4. Passive avoidant * Trust *0.68*0.16*-0.57* 6. OCB *0.28*0.18* *

9 Hypothesis 1: TF augments TA TF accounted for 3% additional variance in trust in the leader Dependent variable: Trust in the leader Transactional Leadership MeanSDR2R2 R 2 Fß Contingent reward *47.81 * 0.28* MBEA * PA * Transformational Leadership *40.88*0.38*

10 Testing the mediation model Multiple regression analysis Multiple regression analysis Baron & Kennys guidelines (1986) to test mediation effects Baron & Kennys guidelines (1986) to test mediation effects significant significant PREDICTOR OUTCOME PREDICTOR TF & TA OUTCOME SCB MEDIATOR PREDICTOR MEDIATOR TRUST significant significant non-significant

11 Hypothesis 2 Trust mediated the relationship between TF & TA leadership and SCB Dependent variables TrustSCBLeadership Behavior Independent variables Leadership BehaviorTrustSCB TF + CR ß = 0.46* R 2 = 0.53* ß = 0.27* R 2 = 0.07* ß = 0.14, ns ß = 0.15, ns R 2 = 0.09* MBEA ß = -0.17* R 2 = 0.55* ß = 0.18 R 2 =0.03, ns Mediation model not applicable PA ß = -0.28* R 2 = 0.61* ß = R 2 = 0.03, ns mediation model not applicable

12 Hypothesis 3 Leaders behaviours: Antecedents to trust (Regression analysis) Justice perceptions Personal identification with the leader Empowerment perceptions Perceived organizational support TRUST 48% variance 12% additional variance

13 Conclusions Leadership behavior is effective if it is both transactional and transformational. For performance beyond expectations, we need more transformational leaders! Leadership behavior is effective if it is both transactional and transformational. For performance beyond expectations, we need more transformational leaders! Role of trust is two-fold: Role of trust is two-fold: 1. Plays a major role in the dynamics of leadership in influencing subordinates citizenship behaviors. 2. It is what a leader does and not what a leader is that helps him/her gain the trust of the workforce i.e. firstly, a leader should implement fair practices and secondly, the workforce should be able to personally identify with him/her and share common goals with regards to the organization.

14 THANK YOU THANK YOU ANY QUESTIONS?


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