Presentation on theme: "“Learning is finding out what you already know"— Presentation transcript:
1“Learning is finding out what you already know “Learning is finding out what you already know. Doing is demonstrating that you know it. Teaching is reminding others that they know just as well as you do. We are all Learners, Doers, Teachers” R. Bach
2Principles and Methods in Training: Training of Trainers (ToT) 17th EPIET introductory courseLazareto, Menorca, Spain07 October 2011Biagio Pedalino
3What are we going to do? Define adults learning characteristics Present interactive teaching methodologiesDesign objectives for training activitiesList the necessary items to prepare a training coursePractice designing a training course
4Why? To improve our training skills To develop some of the core competencies for field epidemiologist in the EU as:TrainingTo provide elements to achieve one of the EPIET objectives: to teach public health professionals
5Basic Principles of Adults learning Take into consideration:Need to know what they are learning and whyValues and pre-conceptionsExperience (life experience)Tiredness, problems, etc.Are practical and problem solvers
6Basic Principles of Adults learning Subject, matter relevant to his/her own purposeLearning by doingApplying information to current, real-world needsExchanging feedback about experienceslearners benefit a great deal from ongoing feedback around their experiences when applying new information and materials
7“Self initiated learning involving the whole person (feelings as well as intellect) is the most pervasive and lasting type of learning.” (Knowles, 40)
8… thus we privilege teaching methods which promote: Emphasis in the process instead the resultsInteractivityActive participation (interaction with others)DiscussionExperienceAppropriate motivational contextDevelopment of skills, attitudes and valuesApplied to real life problemsEtc…
9Design of Training Activities WHY and WHATto teachFundamentsObjectivesContentsCompetencesWHAT,HOW andWHEN to evaluateProgramKnowledgeParticipantsProcedures/skillsWHEN to teachAttitudesTrainerTimingMethodologyHOW to teach99
10We need a planWhy and What to teach? It provides information on the needs, objectives and content of trainingWhen to teach? It tells us how to order and sequence objectives and contentHow do you teach? Planning the activities (i.e. material and methods)What, how and when to evaluate? If you have achieved the desired objectives
11What is missing so far ??? Our target population !!! Their needs Their motivationTheir expectations
12Teaching methods activity …get ready for some action…
13InstructionsYou have been distributed in the room to constitute your “home group” (5 members with the same number, 1 to 8)Look in the room for other participants with the same name and constitute another groupThis is now your “expert group” (8 members with the same name)
15Tree activityWith the material provided (1 pen, 2 sheets and 9 toothpicks):Try to make, with the toothpicks, as many trees as you can without repetitionsDraw each new tree in the paper(definition of tree: 1 trunk + 3 or 4 branches)
16Instructions Has to be a collaborative design SILENCE Laugh is allowed Free role distribution within the groupYou have 5 minutes!
17Think in the group in 5´: Name a “reporter” and answer this questions: How many trees did you draw?What happend during the activity?What did you observed?Did you develop a group strategy?Any lesson learnt for the nextgroup activity?
18More questions: How did you feel in the group? What was your reaction to the task?Which was your role?How did you assign the roles?How did you feel about the person who was slow at seeing the solutions? If you were that person, how did you feel?Was there a climate that helped or hindered? How was the climate?Other observations, comments, learning points?
19Next activity: 10´ Read the paper individually The group discuss and answer this questions:Explain briefly the techniqueWhen is it appropiate to use it?Which is the role of facilitator/moderator?- Take your notes, after you will explain this information in your “home group” (2 minutes each technique)
20Home group. 10´:Split from the expert group and go back to your “home group” (all members with the same number)Name a “timekeeper” to control the timeEach “expert” share his/her knowledge built in the previous group2 minutes per expert
22Now you know more about: Active Learning MethodsPhillips 6-6Role PlaySnow BallBrainstormingJigsaw/PuzzleIce breakers
23Description of Jigsaw Technique Group-work method for teaching, learning and participating in group learning activitiesCooperative learning strategyenables each participant of a “home” groupto specialize in one aspect (“expert”) of a learning unit to resolve a task or class project
25What are the benefit of the Jigsaw? Efficient way to learnEncourages listening, engagement, and empathyby giving each member of the group an essential part to play in the activity (i.e. to acquire an expertise)Group members must work together as a team to accomplish a common goalEach person depends on all the othersNo student can succeed completely unless everyone works well together as a team
26What are the benefit of the Jigsaw? Interpersonal and Social skillsLeadershipDecision-makingTrust-buildingCommunicationConflict-management skillsEtc.FG,Atilim University, 2007
27Core competency benefits gained from using the Jigsaw technique PARTICIPANTS WILL…have the opportunity to teach themselves, instead of having material presented to themhave practice in peer teaching, which requires that they understand the material at a deeper levelcontribute meaningfully to a group discussion while developing an area of expertise within the overall projectM. Kamensky, 2010
28Ten Core competency benefits gained from using the Jigsaw technique have an opportunity to demonstrate a high level of personal responsibilitythink creatively and reflectively, devising new, differentiated ways of approaching, teaching, and presenting materialwork towards a common goal by sharpening their cooperative and teamwork skills.M. Kamensky, 2010
30Training activityYou are a fellow in your public health institute. Your supervisor asks you to prepare a course.In groups of 8 (expert groups) with two facilitators and following the template provided, you are required to prepare a training activity (45 minutes)The “reporter” of the group will summarize the training developed to his/her group
31Design of Training Activities WHY and WHATto teachFundamentsObjectivesContentsCompetencesWHAT,HOW andWHEN to evaluateProgramKnowledgeParticipantsProcedures/skillsWHEN to teachAttitudesTrainerTimingMethodologyHOW to teach3131
32TRAINERS Take into account to make an assessment about: motivation, needs, expectations of the targetpossible “difficulties” for learning (travelling, family responsibilities, cost, time, language, materials, different levels, nationalities, etc.)
33Questions about the target group: Which are the training needs of the target group?Which is their knowledge level about the content?Do you know which competences should they acquire?What do you expect that they should learn after the training course?Can you describe suitable attitudes that the target might acquire during the training? And procedure skills?
34General objective Global goal of the course: Give an overview of the main aspects of vaccination issues in public healthStrengthen participant knowledge and skills related to surveillance of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) and immunization programmesProvide training and practical experience in intervention epidemiology at the national centres for surveillance and control of communicable diseases in the EU and NorwayExplain the main pedagogical aspects for training activities
35Objectives The three domains of learning: Cognitive/Knowledge domain that emphasizes thinking and knowledge (concepts)Skills domain featuring doing (Psychomotor). Manual or physically skills and performance of actionsAttitude domain highlighting attitudes, values, interests, attention, concern, responsibility, ability to listen, respond and demonstrate interactions with others35
36Cognitive/Knowledge domain Examples:Describe the concepts of virology, bacteriology, immunology related to the different test formats.Select, prioritize and structure information relevant to the decision process.Define the advantages and limitations of forecasting.Evaluate vaccination programmes, surveillance of vaccine preventable diseases, vaccine uptake, vaccine safety, immune status, sero-epidemiology and vaccine effectivenessExplain principles for designing information and vaccination campaignsDesign a training activity
37Skills domainDevelop basic computer programmatic and analytical skillsAssess the magnitude of an event in terms of severity, extension in time and in space, affected population, probability of spread, existence of control measures, etcApply criteria and algorithms to decide on its reporting at the EU (EWRS criteria)Carry out analysis for cohort and (matched) case-control studies, including stratified and multivariable analysis.Collect an adequate specimenPerform interactive teaching techniques
38Attitude domainDevelop a European network of public health epidemiologist with common methods and objectivesBe comfortable in the communication of a decisionEncourage collaboration between groups to share informationImplement collaborative activities and teamwork with other professionalsRealize the ethics behaviourImprove active listeningDevelop emotional skills (emphaty, assertive, etc.)Critically appraise and cope with the consequences of wrong decisionsNegotiate a projectImprove team work skills
39Qualities of an objective RelevantSpecificObservable and measurable
40Objectives There are important components writing objectives: the action verb (Infinitive)One verb per objective (recommended)3) Measurable4) Intended audienceAt the end of the module/course, participants will be able to:Waller, K.
41Choice of an active verb Open to less interpretation and easy to observe or measure:DescribeResolveListCompareEvaluateIdentifyDesignExplainSelectDistinguishConstructSolveOpen to many interpretation and difficult to observe or measure:KnowUnderstandBelieveHave faith inBe familiar withAppreciateBe aware ofHave a good grasp ofHave a knowledge ofRealise the significance ofBe interested inBetterArlette Communier
42Examples Explain the objective of a surveillance system List the mandatory diseasesCommunicate with general and professional publicFormulate a case definitionReport the data weekly or monthly according to the situationUse the notification formsWrite situation reportsEncourage collaboration between multidisciplinary groupsPromote communication between departments….
43For your activityWrite, at least, two objectives for knowledge and skills and one for attitudeChoose the content of the course related with the topic, target group, etc.Time. Specify the duration of the course in hours (10h, 20h, 30h, etc)
44For your activityLearning material/method: pre-module workbook; facilitator guidelines, PowerPoint presentation, flip chart template, handouts and references. Ice breaker, formal presentations, Role Playing, Phillips 66, Snow bowling, Peer and group discussion, practice in lab, etc.Competencies A competency is a combination of knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, motivation and abilities that a professional must demonstrate and that are critical to perform work effectivelyExample: Implement public health programmes: translate policy into public health practice
45Training activityYou are a fellow in your public health institute. Your supervisor asks you to prepare a course.In groups of 8 (expert groups) with two facilitators and following the template provided, you are required to prepare a training activity (45 minutes)The “reporter” of the group will summarize the training developed to his/her group
47Design of Training Activities WHY and WHATto teachFundamentsObjectivesContentsCompetencesWHAT,HOW andWHEN to evaluateProgramKnowledgeParticipantsProcedures/skillsWHEN to teachAttitudesTrainerTimingMethodologyHOW to teach4747
48Evaluation Needs Adequation between: Before the implementation PlanificationProcessTraineesDuring the implementationSurvey, discussion,one minute paper, etc.ImpactAfter the trainingArlette Communier
49ReferencesBIGGS, J. (2005): Calidad del aprendizaje universitario. Madrid: Narcea.ECDC Core competences ATHERTON J S (2010) Learning and Teaching; Angles on learning, particularly after the schooling years [On-line] UK: Available:Interactive learning techniques:Knowles, Malcolm, Holton, Elwood, Swanson, Richard, The Adult Learner, fifth edition, Gulf Publishing Company,Morable, L.(2000): Using active learning techniques. On line:Waller, K. Writing instructional objectives. On line
50Thank you for your attention “The nicest thing about not planning is that failure comes as a complete surprise” John Preston