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EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W.

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Presentation on theme: "EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W."— Presentation transcript:

1 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Lessons Learned from Large-Scale Experiments at the Asse Mine Germany Tilmann Rothfuchs Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH Braunschweig/Germany W. Bollingerfehr DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH Peine/Germany W. Bechthold Forschungszentrum Karlsruge Germany

2 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Structure of Presentation Introduction: German Concept on HLW Disposal Overview of Large-Scale Experiments/Tests at Asse Mine/Germany Detailed Results of Asse Experiments Conclusions

3 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Introduction In Germany two types of heat generating high-level radioactive waste (HLW) have to be disposed in an underground repository: (a) steel canisters containing vitrified fission products remaining from spent fuel reprocessing (b) Pollux steel casks containing non- reprocessed Spent Fuel assemblies About 30 years ago, salt formations have been selected to host a repository for all kinds of radioactive waste

4 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Introduction Continued The "Gorleben" salt dome has been investigated since 1979 In 1998, the German government expressed certain doubts with respect to the suitability of salt as host rock in general and of the Gorleben site in particular All exploration activities were halted by the end of 2000 A moratorium was imposed for three to ten years New formation-independent site selection criteria have been developed in order to identify alternative sites with favourable geological settings URL research has been started 30 years ago in the Asse mine

5 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Salt Deposits in Northern Germany Gorleben Asse Hamburg Hanover

6 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Asse salt mine Shaft sinking Salt mining 1908 – 1964 Testing of radioactive waste disposal 1967 – 1978 Underground research laboratory Backfilling and closure

7 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Underground HLW Testing at the Asse Mine Test/ExperimentPeriod Temperature Test Temperature Test Temperature Test Temperature Test Brine Migration Test Test Disposal of Highly Radioactive Radiation Sources (abandoned)1988 – 1993 DEBORA-Project (Development of Seals for HLW disposal boreholes) 1991 – 1995 (Phase I) 1996 – 1999 (Phase II) Thermal Simulation of Drift Emplacement (TSDE) Post Test Analysis of the TSDE experiment 1990 –

8 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Thermal Simulation of Drift Emplacement (TSDE)

9 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse TSDE Objectives to improve the understanding of backfill consolidation behaviour in a repository in rock salt to increase the data base on important phenomena and processes in the repository to develop further the computer codes and material models required for long-term safety analyses

10 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse TSDE: Comparison of Measured and Predicted Data (2D-Modelling in 1990) Temperature Drift Convergence

11 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Determination of remaining porosity and permeability in the compacted crushed salt backfill Investigation of the Excavation Disturbed Zone around the test drifts Post-test inspection and recalibration of measuring instruments Collection of data for improvement of computer models to predict and assess host rock and backfill behaviour in the TSDE experiment and in a HLW repository Post-test investigation of corrosion specimens Objective of TSDE Post-Test Investigations Determination of the status of crushed salt backfill, host rock and instruments at termination of the experiment including in detail:

12 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Uncovering of the TSDE Test Field Using a Front Loader Post Test Investigations in the TSDE Test Field

13 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Core Drilling Machine at Cross Section I1 Post Test Investigations in the TSDE Test Field

14 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Core K4 Post Test Investigations in the TSDE Test Field

15 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Backfill Settling Measuring Device at D1-1 Post Test Investigations in the TSDE Test Field

16 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Post Test Investigations in the TSDE Test Field Convergence Measuring Rod at CS B+1

17 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse TSDE: Comparison of Measured and Predicted Data (Improved 3D-Modelling in 2003) Temperature Drift Convergence

18 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Overview of Codes and Constitutive Models Used in TSDE InstitutionCodeConst. ModelRemarks BGRDJIFE (3D)Heemann (2003)full 3D DBEFLAC 3D Hein (1991)full 3D NRGMARCHein (1991)full 3D UPCCode_BrightOlivella-Gensfull 3D FZK FAST-BEST ADINA, MAUSHein (1991) 3D Temperature 2D Stress-Strain G.3SANTHYCG.3S 3D Temperature 2D Stress-Strain IfGFLAC 2D IfG2D

19 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Investigation of EDZ in the TSDE test Field All permeability values determined from the four measurements were in the order of m 2. This value represents a completely healed EDZ Modelling of EDZ generation was fine, but modelling of healing failed (Olivella, 2003)

20 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Corrosion Investigations 280 specimens distributed in the test field on container surfaces and in the backfill Materials considered: Ti99.8-Pd, Hastelloy C4 and C22, Cr-Ni steels and

21 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse confirm that the alloy Ti99.8-Pd and the unalloyed/low-alloyed steels have a high resistance to general and pitting corrosion. Therefore, they are very promising materials for the manufacturing long-lived containers for the disposal of HLW/spent fuel in rock salt. show that materials Hastelloy C4 and C22, cast iron and the Cr-Ni steels and exhibited a good corrosion resistance to general and local corrosion under the conditions of the TSDE experiment. However, it is well known from previous investigations that under some severe conditions (e.g., low pH, very high Cl-content of the brine, presence of strong oxidants), these materials suffer from pitting corrosion and/or intergranular corrosion. Corrosion Investigations Results

22 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse The DEBORA Project Backfill behaviour in disposal boreholes, especially in borehole seals between the canister stack and the disposal drift

23 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Results of DEBORA 2 Material models confirmed by good agreement of measurements and predictions Temperature development in the backfilled borehole of DEBORA 2 Porosity development in the backfilled borehole of DEBORA 2

24 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Results of DEBORA 2 Porosity/permeability relation obtained from DEBORA confirms older laboratory results of various investigators (Müller-Lyda et a.,1999)

25 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse The HAW project: Transient emplacement of 30 highly radioactive radiation sources (Cs-137+ Sr-90) in the Asse mine Planned to be performed in the 8ties and 9ties of the last century Project stopped in 1992 Two heater test operated over 5 years Development and testing of a transport and emplacement system for HLW canisters

26 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Arrangement of Test Boreholes in the Test Field at the 800-m Level in the Asse mine

27 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Development and Testing of a Transport and Emplacement System for High-Level Radioactive Waste Canisters Emplacement of radioactive canisters never realized System, however, successfully tested without radioactive material System approved by the responsible mining authority Extremely valuable experiences for the operation of a HLW repository in salt formations

28 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Conclusions The three large-scale experiments performed in the Asse mine yielded most important data for the validation of material and computer models needed to assess the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical long-term behaviour of rock salt and crushed salt backfill in a repository in geological salt formations 2D-Modelling was found inadequate to simulate complex experiment geometries. If end-effects are to simulated adequately, as in the TSDE experiment, full 3D-modelling is required Post-test investigations of host rock, backfill and recalibration of measuring instruments were extremely useful for the confirmation of applied models and measuring techniques A complete transport and emplacement system was developed and successfully tested in the framework of the HWA-project. Although such a system will certainly be designed differently on basis of advanced technologies in about 20 to 30 years when a repository will be taken into operation, the exercises at Asse mine demonstrated the principle availability of the techniques for the safe handling of HLW canisters

29 EURADWASTE 04: Sixth European Commission Conference on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste 29 March – 1 April 2004, Luxembourg T. Rothfuchs, W. Bollingerfehr; W. Bechthold: Lessons learned at Asse Acknowledgements The work was co-funded by the national governments and authorities and by the European Commission. The authors would like to thank for this support. Special thanks also to all project partners (ANDRA, BGR, DBE, DOE-CBFO, ECN, ENRESA, FZK, G.3S, GSF, IfG, NRG, UPC) for their continuous support and the fruitful discussions in the many project meetings. BAMBUS II Project Committee on August 31, 2000


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