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Growth Poles and Clusters Policy in Spain Gervasio Cordero DGSME (MITYC) Bruselas, 7 de Octubre 2008 07A03-CORDERO.

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Presentation on theme: "Growth Poles and Clusters Policy in Spain Gervasio Cordero DGSME (MITYC) Bruselas, 7 de Octubre 2008 07A03-CORDERO."— Presentation transcript:

1 Growth Poles and Clusters Policy in Spain Gervasio Cordero DGSME (MITYC) Bruselas, 7 de Octubre 2008 07A03-CORDERO

2 Spanish Economy: Strengths Fast convergence with (GDP/inhab. Pps) Fast convergence with (GDP/inhab. Pps) 1995 index81(UE-15=100). 2006 index 98 (UE- 15=100) 105(UE-27). 1995 index81(UE-15=100). 2006 index 98 (UE- 15=100) 105(UE-27). All spanish regions converge fast thought at different paces (At presents convergence regions 12 points in 1995-2006) GDP spanish growth very above UE average. GDP spanish growth very above UE average. 1985-2005 Spain 33%. UE-15 24% 1985-2005 Spain 33%. UE-15 24% 2000-2006 Spain 36%. UE-15 21% 2000-2006 Spain 36%. UE-15 21% Strong growth of employment Strong growth of employment 1985-2005 Spain 228%. UE-15 191% 1985-2005 Spain 228%. UE-15 191% 2000-2006 Spain 315%. UE-15 068% 2000-2006 Spain 315%. UE-15 068%

3 Spanish Economy: Weaknesses Low growth of labour productivity Low growth of labour productivity 1985-2005 Spain 22%. UE-15 23% 1985-2005 Spain 22%. UE-15 23% 2000-2006 Spain -0,3%. UE-15 07% 2000-2006 Spain -0,3%. UE-15 07% Loss of competitivity Loss of competitivity Spanish exports rate of growth 45% (2000-2006) Spanish exports rate of growth 45% (2000-2006) Worldwide market growth 7% (2000-2006) Worldwide market growth 7% (2000-2006) Spanish imports rate of growth 68% (2000-2006) Spanish imports rate of growth 68% (2000-2006) Increase of commercial imbalance Increase of commercial imbalance 58% in 2000-2007 (in real terms). 58% in 2000-2007 (in real terms). Risks at medium and long term for growth spanish economy and its least developped regions. Risks at medium and long term for growth spanish economy and its least developped regions. SOURCE: VAN ANKB(2006) from OECD and BANCO DE ESPAÑA (2006)

4 Spanish Economy: Weakness Specialization according to sectorial technology level (1) TechnologicalIntensitySpainUE-15 High (%) 5,79,9 Medium – High (%) 27,836,1 Medium – Low (%) 33,826,7 Low (%) 32,727,3 Total100100 (1) 2004. Base price manufacturing distribution. OECD

5 WEAKNESSES: Insufficient effort in R+D+i with very important regional disparities Total expenditure R+D/GDP - 569% UE-15 Total expenditure R+D/GDP - 569% UE-15 Total expenditure R+D/GDP Public sector - 747% UE-15 Total expenditure R+D/GDP Public sector - 747% UE-15 Total expenditure R+D/GDP Private sector- 473% UE-15 Total expenditure R+D/GDP Private sector- 473% UE-15 Expenditure Private sector 58% total expenditure (66% in UE-15) Expenditure Private sector 58% total expenditure (66% in UE-15) Patents demand (million inhab) 441 (161,1 in UE-15) Patents demand (million inhab) 441 (161,1 in UE-15) SOURCE: INE (2005)

6 WEAKNESSES Less size and productivity of SMEs Less size and productivity of SMEs SMEs % Workers: Spain – 795% UE-15 - 663% SMEs % Workers: Spain – 795% UE-15 - 663% SMEs % VAB: Spain – 563% UE-15 - 507% SMEs % VAB: Spain – 563% UE-15 - 507% Less cooperation links Less cooperation links Percentage of enterprises in contact with research and technological centers (15% under UE-15 average). Percentage of enterprises in contact with research and technological centers (15% under UE-15 average). Percentage of enterprises involveld partly in clusters (18% lower than UE-15). Percentage of enterprises involveld partly in clusters (18% lower than UE-15). Percentage of enterprises which belong to a cluster (25% lower than UE-15). Percentage of enterprises which belong to a cluster (25% lower than UE-15). SOURCE: INE (2005)

7 Increase of productivity and competitivity Corporate sector must provide mayor effort in R+D+i. Corporate sector must provide mayor effort in R+D+i. Predominance of small and micro businesses makes the cooperation among then and with innovation agents necessary. Predominance of small and micro businesses makes the cooperation among then and with innovation agents necessary. Spanish National Program of Reforms 2005-2010, Business Promotion Plan 2006-2011 and National Plan R+D+i 2008-2012 settle numerous instruments of improvement R+D+i in business sector. Spanish National Program of Reforms 2005-2010, Business Promotion Plan 2006-2011 and National Plan R+D+i 2008-2012 settle numerous instruments of improvement R+D+i in business sector. One of then is the support for the creation, consolidation and development of clusters through Agrupaciones Empresariales Innovadoras (AEIs) policy. One of then is the support for the creation, consolidation and development of clusters through Agrupaciones Empresariales Innovadoras (AEIs) policy.

8 Favouring facts for a state clusters policy Previous experiences of regionals goverments (P.Vasco, Cataluña, Galicia, Madrid mainly). Previous experiences of regionals goverments (P.Vasco, Cataluña, Galicia, Madrid mainly). Supported by UE (Framework Programme of Competitivity and Innovation 2007-2013) Supported by UE (Framework Programme of Competitivity and Innovation 2007-2013) Important aglomeration economys at regional level. Mainly in the industrial sector but also in some service sectors (tourisme, etc.). Important aglomeration economys at regional level. Mainly in the industrial sector but also in some service sectors (tourisme, etc.).

9 Map of Industrial Distrincts 2004 237 industrial districts 1.288.000 jobs. 87,2% of people employed belong SMEs Fuente: Elaboración a partir de Censos de 2001 y DIRCE (INE).

10 AEI (Agrupaciones Empresariales innovadoras) What is an AEI? What is an AEI? AEI is an innovative cluster formula AEI is an innovative cluster formula Includes enterprises, research centers, technology and knowledge transfer centers and training centers that share a interests in a market or a technology, and are spatially concentrated Includes enterprises, research centers, technology and knowledge transfer centers and training centers that share a interests in a market or a technology, and are spatially concentrated

11 AEIs Programme Strategic aims: Improvement international enterprise competitivity through more innovative performance (special accent in less developped regions) Strategic aims: Improvement international enterprise competitivity through more innovative performance (special accent in less developped regions) AEIs programs target: to developping and stabilise collaborative links among enterpises and with other member cluster. AEIs programs target: to developping and stabilise collaborative links among enterpises and with other member cluster. Links allow to strengthen the transfer of information and knowledge necessary for technological and organizative projects with enough size. Links allow to strengthen the transfer of information and knowledge necessary for technological and organizative projects with enough size.

12 Programme AEI implementation: First phase Identificaction and choice of cluster with potential: Identificaction and choice of cluster with potential: International orientation. International orientation. Innovative strategy. Innovative strategy. Commitement to invest in innovation. Commitement to invest in innovation. Commitement to cooperate in ambitions projects with other cluster. Commitement to cooperate in ambitions projects with other cluster. The choice is carried out by MITYC with the collaboration of regional governements. The choice is carried out by MITYC with the collaboration of regional governements.

13 AEI Selection criteria: Selection criteria: Strategic AEI plan: quality, depth and breadth. Identification of critical innovation collective projects Strategic AEI plan: quality, depth and breadth. Identification of critical innovation collective projects Technical, economic and financial feasibility Technical, economic and financial feasibility Co-financing commitment by firms Co-financing commitment by firms Involvement of regional and local governments Involvement of regional and local governments Economic impact of the group: critical mass Economic impact of the group: critical mass Continuity: possibility of derived actions Continuity: possibility of derived actions National, regional and local impact National, regional and local impact Special AEI MITYC REGISTER. (AEI label). Special AEI MITYC REGISTER. (AEI label).

14 Second Phase: Support to AEIs acknowledged by MITYC MITYC aid for governanza expenditure and preparative activities for colaborations projects (among firms and other organisms) MITYC aid for governanza expenditure and preparative activities for colaborations projects (among firms and other organisms) Special consideration for projects submitted to all MITYC R+D+i support programs, other R+D+i programs of state bodies and (according to previous agreements) regional governements. Special consideration for projects submitted to all MITYC R+D+i support programs, other R+D+i programs of state bodies and (according to previous agreements) regional governements. MITYC and state governement bodies do not belong to the decision and managment structures of the AEIs acknowledged by MITYC. Regional governements can participate. MITYC and state governement bodies do not belong to the decision and managment structures of the AEIs acknowledged by MITYC. Regional governements can participate.

15 Present situation of AEIs Programme Started in 2007. Started in 2007. In 2008 strategics plans by candidate group were formarded. First selection of acknowledged by MITYC (46 chosen out of 170). In 2008 strategics plans by candidate group were formarded. First selection of acknowledged by MITYC (46 chosen out of 170). In 2008 firsts aids NITYC for final groups labelled AEIs. In 2008 firsts aids NITYC for final groups labelled AEIs. In 2008 Process of new selection of candidates groups started. Until 2010 this process will be kept. In 2008 Process of new selection of candidates groups started. Until 2010 this process will be kept. The preferential aids to labelled AEIs will be kepts until at least 2015. The preferential aids to labelled AEIs will be kepts until at least 2015.

16 AEIs acknowledged by MITYC in 2008 Sectorial distribution ActivitiesNumber 1. Taditional activities. (Food, shoes, textiles, wood, toys,..) 9 2. Value-chain activities dominated by large firms. (Transport equipament, cars, shipbuilding,..) 15 3. Science based activities. (Aerospace, biotechnology, drugs, energy, environmental technologies,..) 14 4. Advanced services intensive users of new Technologies (ICT) (Software, media industry,..) 7 TOTAL46

17 4 3 3 11 1 1 1 2 1 2 22 5 3 4 1 1 Convergence Regions11 Ph-out Regions 3 Ph-in Regions 8 Competitivity Regions24 AEIS acknowlodged by MITYC in 2008 Geografical distribution


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