Presentation on theme: "“Without society and government, we would live in a state of nature, where we each have unlimited natural freedoms. The downside of this general autonomy."— Presentation transcript:
“Without society and government, we would live in a state of nature, where we each have unlimited natural freedoms. The downside of this general autonomy is that it includes the “right to all things” and thus the freedom to harm all who threaten one’s own self- preservation; there are no positive rights, only laws of nature and an endless “war of all against all.” In other words, anyone in the state of nature can do anything he likes to anyone else. To avoid this, free men by social contract establish a political community or civil society in which each gain civil rights in return for subjecting to civil law or to political authority, a government.” What is this quote saying or mean???
KEY TERM Government: the institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that are binding on all people living within the state.
SO who has governments?..... KEY TERM STATES have governments! A state is a political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government with the power to make and enforce laws without approval from any higher authority. Example: The United States/Mexico/England The word “country” is often used instead of the word state
FYI Before the thirteen British colonies decided to join together to be called “The United States,” each colony or “state” (as we think of today) thought of itself as its own country.
Nations Key Term A nation is any sizable group of people who are united by common bonds of race, language, custom, tradition and sometimes religion. Usually territorial boundaries are the same for states and nations but not always. Example: Quebec in the “state” of Canada
Quebec Quebec lies within the “state” of Canada but they consider themselves their own nation. (This area in Canada is united by many French speaking Catholics who follow French culture rather than follow the non-Catholic, English speaking Canadian majority.
Developing Nation Often called 3 rd world countries They often have a reduced chance of life, major social problems, often changing leaders, & quality of life is not good. Emerging Nation One that is slowly becoming more developed. Industrialized Nation HAS the necessary pieces of a successful nation ○ Highly developed industries in manufacturing, technology, etc., as well as goods, services, and trade.
Essential Feature #1 Population People States where the population shares a general agreement about basic beliefs have the most stable governments.
Essential Feature #2 Territory Established boundaries Example: The United States boundaries are the Atlantic/Pacific oceans, Canada and Mexico. A state’s boundaries may change overtime due to war, expansion, etc.
Essential Feature #3 Sovereignty The state has supreme and absolute authority within its territorial boundaries. Complete independence and power to make laws, shape foreign policy and determine its own course of action.
Purpose #1 Maintain Social Order Back to social contract theory! Governments provide ways of resolving conflicts among group members. Provides order to a “state of chaos.”
Purpose #2 Provide Public Services Essential services that make community life possible and promote the general welfare that individuals could not do on their own. Example: Government build sewer systems/Public health and safety laws
Purpose #3 Provide National Security Protect the people against attack by other states or from threats such as terrorism.
Purpose #4 Make Economic Decisions Material scarcity is often the cause of conflict in society. Governments try to reduce this conflict by intervening in the economic system.