Presentation on theme: "The Age of New Imperialism 1800-1914. Imperialism A policy where stronger nations dominate the political, economic, or cultural life of weaker nations."— Presentation transcript:
Imperialism A policy where stronger nations dominate the political, economic, or cultural life of weaker nations. New wave began in the 1800s. Original wave started in the 1400s. Born out of the new industrial society of the 1800s. Countries were richer and more powerful.
Economic Interests The Industrial Revolution – natural resources Ex: rubber, petroleum, manganese for steel, palm oil for machinery – new markets to sell factory goods to – colonies were outlets for overpopulation in home countries (emigration)
Empire Emigrants Finished Goods Colony Raw Materials
Political/Military Interests Naval bases – Seized islands and harbors Competition/maintaining balance of power – Empire = prestige and greatness – Ex: when France gained colonies in West Africa, Great Britain and Germany did too to prevent France from becoming too powerful
Humanitarian/Religious Goals Westerners believed they had a moral duty to spread their “superior” way of life – Western technology, law, medicine, education Also felt they needed to “Christianize” the “barbarians” in other parts of the world Very ethnocentric…but…many well-meaning missionaries and doctors accompanied the imperialists Two arguments: western advances did benefit natives; natives were denied their culture
Social Darwinism Imperialism was based on feelings of racial superiority; this theory justified colonies. – Racism: the belief that one race is superior to others Social Darwinists applied Charles Darwin’s ideas about natural selection and survival of the fittest to human societies. Imperialism was nature’s way of improving the human race.
What made Imperialism possible? Weakness of conquered areas – Africa was weak because of slave trade – Lack of weapons/technology Western strengths and advantages – Strong economies and governments – Powerful armies and navies – Superior technology Steam-powered ships, Maxim machine gun (1889), repeating rifles, the telegraph, quinine
Meeting in Berlin Berlin Conference, 1884 – A gathering of European powers held in Berlin. – This was a means of avoiding war between the powers. – It established ground rules for staking claims in Africa.
Forms of Imperialism Colony – direct control, most intrusive Protectorate – local rulers left in place, but still under control of European advisors Sphere of influence – exclusive investment or trading privileges
Impacts Positive: medical advances, hospitals, schools – Life expectancy and literacy rates increased Negative: Africans lost control of land and their independence – Forced to mine or plant cotton and other cash crops instead of their own food crops – Famine – Loss of traditional culture