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Taxonomy, Evolution and Adaptations

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Presentation on theme: "Taxonomy, Evolution and Adaptations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Taxonomy, Evolution and Adaptations
TAKS Review Taxonomy, Evolution and Adaptations

2 Binomial Nomenclature
Organisms are given two term names: genus and species Humans are : Homo sapiens Genus is always capitalized species is not! Either italicize or underline the name

3 Levels of Taxonomy Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Kangaroo Parents Clapped Obediently For Green Shoes Have students remember a mnemonic device, either the kangaroo one or one they make up on their own.

4 The Six Kingdoms Protista Fungi Eubacteria Animalia Archaebacteria

5 Both hetero- and autotrophs
Six Kingdoms Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plants Animals Cell type? Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Cell wall? Yes (peptido-glycan) Some (cellulose) (chitin) NO Cell numbers Unicellular or Multi-cellular Multi-cellular Cellular energy Both hetero- and autotrophs heterotrophs autotrophs Archaebacteria Cell walls are composed of different compounds. TAKS likes the cellulose vs. chitin. Return to the previous slide to have students fill in examples in their notes. There are more examples listed on the following slide as well.

6 Examples from the 6 Kingdoms
Archaebacteria Halophiles, methanogens Eubacteria E. Coli, Streptococcus Protista Euglena, diatoms, amoeba Fungi Mushrooms, yeast Plantae Moss, ferns, flowering plants, trees Animalia Birds, humans, reptiles, sponges, worms

7 Practice Question A laboratory investigation included examining prepared slides of pond water. Single-celled organisms with a nucleus and either cilia or flagella were visible. These organisms probably belong to the kingdom — F Animalia G Eubacteria H Plantae J Protista J

8 Practice Question B Which of these classifications is most specific?
A Family B Genus C Phylum D Order B

9 Practice Question According to this information, three of these organisms should be placed in the same kingdom. Which organism should be placed in a different kingdom? F Q G R H S J T G

10 Practice Question Knowledge of which of these is most important in classifying this new organism into a kingdom? F The color of light absorbed by the organism G The type of radiation emitted H The use of photosynthesis J The color of the organism H

11 Practice Question The picture shows a piece of rotting wood. Which of these does the picture demonstrate? F Photosynthesis occurring G Wood regenerating H Decomposers growing J Genes transforming H

12 Practice Question The chart shows the classification of four organisms found in Texas. Which organism is most closely related to Organism X? A Anolis carolinensis B Bufo americanus C Poecile gambeli D Grus americana C

13 Practice Question Which is a characteristic of members of the plant kingdom that distinguishes them from members of the animal kingdom? A Storage of energy in chemical bonds B Exchange of H2O with the environment C Use of mRNA during protein production D Use of chlorophyll for solar-energy transformation D

14 Practice Question The table above shows percent differences in Cytochrome c in four different animals. According to the table, which two animals are most closely related to each other? A A Horse and dog B Dog and kangaroo C Horse and penguin D Penguin and kangaroo

15 Evolution Means change over time
Organisms are suited to their environment, but as their environment changes they also must change or adapt in order to survive. Adaptations are characteristics that increase an organisms chances for survival.

16 Adaptation Questions TAKS likes adaptation questions.
For these, think about the environment the organism is in and what its MOST important needs are! Examples Desert species need water, cooling system Tundra species need to keep warm Saltwater species need to remove extra salt, breathe underwater

17 Who is more fit to their environment?
That’s better! Polar bears are not naturally found where there are brick walls and dirt. The brown bear blends in with the flora found in the Canadian wilderness.

18 Speciation: Separation into new species
Geographic, Temporal and Behavioral isolation can all lead to reproductive isolation. Temporal refers to timing. Timing for mating, migrating, feeding etc. Bird of paradise mating dance is a distinct behavior of this species Mountains, rivers even roads can separate two populations of the same species.

19 Reproductive Isolation
When two variations of the same species can no longer interbreed because they are separated by time, behavior or location… …they have experienced reproductive isolation. They are no longer part of the same species. They are two different species. Speciation has occurred.

20 Natural Selection “Survival of the Fittest”
Organisms that survive long enough to reproduce have favorable traits. These traits get passed on to offspring. They are naturally selected for and become more common as time goes on. FYI: unfavorable traits don’t get passed on as often and are seen less frequently as time goes on.

21 Practice Question Which of the following is an adaptation most likely observed in plants growing along Aransas Bay (red dot on map)? A Sensitivity to green light B Tolerance of saltwater C Extension of root length D Resistance to predation B

22 Practice Question Cacti grow slowly compared to most other plants. The fact that cacti keep their stomata closed for much of the day can help explain this growth characteristic. Which of these best explains the advantage of keeping stomata closed during the day? F It limits water loss through transpiration. G It conserves oxygen produced in photosynthesis. H It recycles carbon dioxide within plant systems. J It protects plant tissues from predators. F

23 Practice Question Background
Stomata are the little holes mainly on the bottom side of leaves that control H2O loss and CO2 intake. They can open and close depending on plant needs.

24 Practice Question The myxoma virus was used to control an overpopulation of European rabbits in Australia. When first introduced in the mid-1900s, the virus greatly reduced the European rabbit population. Today the virus is not an effective control of the European rabbit population. Fewer European rabbits are affected by the virus today because they have — F learned to avoid the virus G moved away from infected areas H undergone a change in diet J developed resistance to the virus J

25 Practice Question The guppy is a species of small freshwater fish. Scientists observed that the average size of guppies in a pond decreased over a few years after a guppy predator was introduced into the pond. Which of the following best explains the change in guppy size? F Speciation G Convergent evolution H Inbreeding J Natural selection J

26 Practice Question Some mesquite trees have deeper roots than any other plant in the desert. How are deep roots an adaptation for survival in the desert? F Deep roots can protect the tree from predators. G Roots encounter cooler conditions far below the desert surface. H Roots can extend great distances to reach water. J Deep roots interact with beneficial bacteria below the surface. H

27 Practice Question A man treated his home with a pesticide that kills roaches. The first application of the pesticide killed 92% of the roaches. Two months later he applied the pesticide to his home again, but the second application killed only 65% of the roaches. What would best explain the decrease in the effectiveness of the pesticide? F The pesticide is effective only against mature roaches. G Once roaches learned how to fight the pesticide, they taught others. H The surviving roaches were naturally resistant to the pesticide, and that resistance was inherited by their offspring. J The pesticide caused some of the roaches’ digestive systems to mutate and metabolize the pesticide. J sounds like a decent answer too, but a natural resistance is much more likely than the pesticide itself causing a mutation that benefits the pesticide. H

28 Practice Question F Birds become confused by the bug’scoloration, so the bug has time to escape. G Birds associate the bug’s coloration with its bad taste and avoid eating it. H Birds are unable to locate the bug’s head, so the bug can escape. J Birds cannot locate the bug because it appears to be part of the plant. Which of the following best explains how the milkweed bug’s coloration helps it avoid being eaten by birds? G

29 Practice Question The benefits of spines on a cactus are similar to the benefits of the — F scales on a butterfly wing G talons on a hawk H whiskers on a cat J shell on a tortoise J Remember to think about the BENEFIT not the structure. Talons on a hawk are the most similar to spines on a cactus, but talons are for catching prey. Cactus spines are for protection of the cactus…similar to the shell on a tortoise.

30 Practice Question Some species of kelp anchor themselves to the seafloor. These species have small air sacs, called air bladders, at the base of each leaf. The air bladders raise the top of the kelp to the water’s surface. What advantage do air bladders give the kelp? A They allow the kelp to obtain more salt from the water. B They prevent the kelp from breaking during a storm. C They allow kelp leaves to receive greater amounts of sunlight. D They provide the kelp with protection from herbivores. C

31 Fossils Imprints or remains of living things
In undisturbed layers of sedimentary rock, the deeper it is, the older it is Gives information about extinct species

32 What is extinction and what causes it?
A population is extinct when the last of that species is dead. Example: There are no more dinosaurs. What happened? Their habitat was destroyed. When they no longer have what they need to live, they die.

33 Analogous and Homologous Features
Metacarpals Humerus Ulna Radius Homologous structures are derived from a common ancestor structure, but may or may not serve the same purpose. The bones are homologous. Analogous structures serve the same purpose. The moth with is analogous to bat and bird wings.

34 Practice Question A During a severe drought a dry lake
was explored for fossils. The diagram represents the fossils uncovered and the layers they were in. According to this information, this area was once a — A forest that was replaced by a freshwater lake B freshwater lake that was replaced by a desert C saltwater sea that was replaced by a forest D freshwater lake that was replaced by a forest A

35 Practice Question Birds and reptiles are similar in that they are vertebrates and lay eggs. They differ in that reptiles have teeth and birds have beaks. Some birds do possess teeth. However, these teeth are present only in the embryonic stage. Which conclusion is best supported by the presence of teeth in bird embryos? A Birds and reptiles share a common ancestor. B Modern reptiles are the ancestors of modern birds. C Birds and reptiles eat similar types of food. D Ancestors of reptiles had beaks similar to those of birds. A

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