Presentation on theme: "Taxonomy, Evolution and Adaptations"— Presentation transcript:
1 Taxonomy, Evolution and Adaptations TAKS ReviewTaxonomy, Evolution and Adaptations
2 Binomial Nomenclature Organisms are given two term names:genus and speciesHumans are :Homo sapiensGenus is always capitalizedspecies is not!Either italicize or underline the name
3 Levels of Taxonomy Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species KangarooParentsClappedObedientlyForGreenShoesHave students remember a mnemonic device, either the kangaroo one or one they make up on their own.
4 The Six Kingdoms Protista Fungi Eubacteria Animalia Archaebacteria Plantae
5 Both hetero- and autotrophs Six KingdomsEubacteriaProtistaFungiPlantsAnimalsCell type?ProkaryoticEukaryoticCell wall?Yes(peptido-glycan)Some(cellulose)(chitin)NOCell numbersUnicellularor Multi-cellularMulti-cellularCellular energyBoth hetero- and autotrophsheterotrophsautotrophsArchaebacteriaCell walls are composed of different compounds. TAKS likes the cellulose vs. chitin.Return to the previous slide to have students fill in examples in their notes.There are more examples listed on the following slide as well.
7 Practice QuestionA laboratory investigation included examining prepared slides of pond water. Single-celled organisms with a nucleus and either cilia or flagella were visible. These organisms probably belong to the kingdom —F AnimaliaG EubacteriaH PlantaeJ ProtistaJ
8 Practice Question B Which of these classifications is most specific? A FamilyB GenusC PhylumD OrderB
9 Practice QuestionAccording to this information, three of these organisms should be placed in the same kingdom. Which organism should be placed in a different kingdom?F QG RH SJ TG
10 Practice QuestionKnowledge of which of these is most important in classifying this new organism into a kingdom?F The color of light absorbed by the organismG The type of radiation emittedH The use of photosynthesisJ The color of the organismH
11 Practice QuestionThe picture shows a piece of rotting wood. Which of these does the picture demonstrate?F Photosynthesis occurringG Wood regeneratingH Decomposers growingJ Genes transformingH
12 Practice QuestionThe chart shows the classification of four organisms found in Texas. Which organism is most closely related to Organism X?A Anolis carolinensisB Bufo americanusC Poecile gambeliD Grus americanaC
13 Practice QuestionWhich is a characteristic of members of the plant kingdom that distinguishes them from members of the animal kingdom?A Storage of energy in chemical bondsB Exchange of H2O with the environmentC Use of mRNA during protein productionD Use of chlorophyll for solar-energy transformationD
14 Practice QuestionThe table above shows percent differences in Cytochrome c in four different animals. According to the table, which two animals are most closely related to each other?AA Horse and dogB Dog and kangarooC Horse and penguinD Penguin and kangaroo
15 Evolution Means change over time Organisms are suited to their environment, but as their environment changes they also must change or adapt in order to survive.Adaptations are characteristics that increase an organisms chances for survival.
16 Adaptation Questions TAKS likes adaptation questions. For these, think about the environment the organism is in and what its MOST important needs are!ExamplesDesert species need water, cooling systemTundra species need to keep warmSaltwater species need to remove extra salt, breathe underwater
17 Who is more fit to their environment? That’s better!Polar bears are not naturally found where there are brick walls and dirt.The brown bear blends in with the flora found in the Canadian wilderness.
18 Speciation: Separation into new species Geographic, Temporal and Behavioral isolation can all lead to reproductive isolation.Temporal refers to timing. Timing for mating, migrating, feeding etc.Bird of paradise mating dance is a distinct behavior of this speciesMountains, rivers even roads can separate two populations of the same species.
19 Reproductive Isolation When two variations of the same species can no longer interbreed because they are separated by time, behavior or location……they have experienced reproductive isolation. They are no longer part of the same species. They are two different species.Speciation has occurred.
20 Natural Selection “Survival of the Fittest” Organisms that survive long enough to reproduce have favorable traits.These traits get passed on to offspring.They are naturally selected for and become more common as time goes on.FYI: unfavorable traits don’t get passed on as often and are seen less frequently as time goes on.
21 Practice QuestionWhich of the following is an adaptation most likely observed in plants growing along Aransas Bay (red dot on map)?A Sensitivity to green lightB Tolerance of saltwaterC Extension of root lengthD Resistance to predationB
22 Practice QuestionCacti grow slowly compared to most other plants. The fact that cacti keep their stomata closed for much of the day can help explain this growth characteristic. Which of these best explains the advantage of keeping stomata closed during the day?F It limits water loss through transpiration.G It conserves oxygen produced in photosynthesis.H It recycles carbon dioxide within plant systems.J It protects plant tissues from predators.F
23 Practice Question Background Stomata are the little holes mainly on the bottom side of leaves that control H2O loss and CO2 intake.They can open and close depending on plant needs.
24 Practice QuestionThe myxoma virus was used to control an overpopulation of European rabbits in Australia. When first introduced in the mid-1900s, the virus greatly reduced the European rabbit population. Today the virus is not an effective control of the European rabbit population. Fewer European rabbits are affected by the virus today because they have —F learned to avoid the virusG moved away from infected areasH undergone a change in dietJ developed resistance to the virusJ
25 Practice QuestionThe guppy is a species of small freshwater fish. Scientists observed that the average size of guppies in a pond decreased over a few years after a guppy predator was introduced into the pond. Which of the following best explains the change in guppy size?F SpeciationG Convergent evolutionH InbreedingJ Natural selectionJ
26 Practice QuestionSome mesquite trees have deeper roots than any other plant in the desert. How are deep roots an adaptation for survival in the desert?F Deep roots can protect the tree from predators.G Roots encounter cooler conditions far below the desert surface.H Roots can extend great distances to reach water.J Deep roots interact with beneficial bacteria below the surface.H
27 Practice QuestionA man treated his home with a pesticide that kills roaches. The first application of the pesticide killed 92% of the roaches. Two months later he applied the pesticide to his home again, but the second application killed only 65% of the roaches. What would best explain the decrease in the effectiveness of the pesticide?F The pesticide is effective only against mature roaches.G Once roaches learned how to fight the pesticide, they taught others.H The surviving roaches were naturally resistant to the pesticide, and that resistance was inherited by their offspring.J The pesticide caused some of the roaches’ digestive systems to mutate and metabolize the pesticide.J sounds like a decent answer too, but a natural resistance is much more likely than the pesticide itself causing a mutation that benefits the pesticide.H
28 Practice QuestionF Birds become confused by the bug’scoloration, so the bug has time to escape.G Birds associate the bug’s coloration with its bad taste and avoid eating it.H Birds are unable to locate the bug’s head, so the bug can escape.J Birds cannot locate the bug because it appears to be part of the plant.Which of the following best explains how the milkweed bug’s coloration helps it avoid being eaten by birds?G
29 Practice QuestionThe benefits of spines on a cactus are similar to the benefits of the —F scales on a butterfly wingG talons on a hawkH whiskers on a catJ shell on a tortoiseJRemember to think about the BENEFIT not the structure. Talons on a hawk are the most similar to spines on a cactus, but talons are for catching prey. Cactus spines are for protection of the cactus…similar to the shell on a tortoise.
30 Practice QuestionSome species of kelp anchor themselves to the seafloor. These species have small air sacs, called air bladders, at the base of each leaf. The air bladders raise the top of the kelp to the water’s surface. What advantage do air bladders give the kelp?A They allow the kelp to obtain more salt from the water.B They prevent the kelp from breaking during a storm.C They allow kelp leaves to receive greater amounts of sunlight.D They provide the kelp with protection from herbivores.C
31 Fossils Imprints or remains of living things In undisturbed layers of sedimentary rock, the deeper it is, the older it isGives information about extinct species
32 What is extinction and what causes it? A population is extinct when the last of that species is dead.Example: There are no more dinosaurs.What happened? Their habitat was destroyed. When they no longer have what they need to live, they die.
33 Analogous and Homologous Features MetacarpalsHumerusUlnaRadiusHomologous structures are derived from a common ancestor structure, but may or may not serve the same purpose.The bones are homologous.Analogous structures serve the same purpose. The moth with is analogous to bat and bird wings.
34 Practice Question A During a severe drought a dry lake was explored for fossils. The diagramrepresents the fossils uncovered andthe layers they were in. According tothis information, this area was once a —A forest that was replaced by a freshwater lakeB freshwater lake that was replaced by a desertC saltwater sea that was replaced by a forestD freshwater lake that was replaced by a forestA
35 Practice QuestionBirds and reptiles are similar in that they are vertebrates and lay eggs. They differ in that reptiles have teeth and birds have beaks. Some birds do possess teeth. However, these teeth are present only in the embryonic stage. Which conclusion is best supported by the presence of teeth in bird embryos?A Birds and reptiles share a common ancestor.B Modern reptiles are the ancestors of modern birds.C Birds and reptiles eat similar types of food.D Ancestors of reptiles had beaks similar to those of birds.A