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■ Essential Question: – What role did the United States play in fighting in the Pacific during World War II? ■ CPUSH Agenda for Unit 11.5: – Clicker Questions.

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Presentation on theme: "■ Essential Question: – What role did the United States play in fighting in the Pacific during World War II? ■ CPUSH Agenda for Unit 11.5: – Clicker Questions."— Presentation transcript:

1 ■ Essential Question: – What role did the United States play in fighting in the Pacific during World War II? ■ CPUSH Agenda for Unit 11.5: – Clicker Questions – “Fighting World War II” notes – “The Manhattan Project” inquiry activity – Today’s HW: 25.3 – Unit 11 Test: Thursday, February 16 – Semester Essay: Tuesday, February 21 Fighting WWII in the Pacific

2 While the war was coming to an end in Europe, the Allies continued to fight the Japanese in the Pacific

3 After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the USA sent troops to the Pacific theater The turning point in the war in the Pacific came at the Battle of Midway Battle of Midway After Midway, the Allies began to regain islands controlled by Japan The Pacific war revealed a new kind of fighting by using aircraft carriers

4 Japan did not play by traditional rules in war “Kamikaze” pilots flew planes into battleships & aircraft carriers Japanese soldiers refused to surrender & tortured Allied prisoners of war

5 The problem for the Allies was the time & troops it would cost to retake the thousands of islands the Japanese controlled in the Pacific The fight for Guadalcanal took 6 months & cost 25,000 Japanese & 2,000 U.S. lives The U.S. developed an island-hopping strategy to skip the heavily defended islands & seize islands close to Japan From 1943 to 1945, the Allies took back the Philippines & were moving in on Japan

6 In 1945, the Allies won the islands of Iwo Jima & Okinawa Iwo Jima From these islands, the U.S. began firebombing Japanese cities

7 By May 1945, the war in Europe was over & U.S. began preparing for a land invasion of Japan Despite losing control of the Pacific & withstanding firebomb attacks, Japan refused to surrender …But, perhaps a land invasion was not necessary…

8 Whether to Drop the Atomic Bomb? Critical Thinking Decision A FDR’s Decision: B In 1939, Albert Einstein wrote U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt about the potential to build a nuclear weapon FDR created a top-secret program called the Manhattan Project

9 The Manhattan Project Robert Oppenheimer was put in charge of developing the bomb From 1942-1945, a number of secret labs across the country developed & built the bomb

10 Physicist Enrico Fermi at the University of Chicago developed the nuclear reaction Nuclear plant in Hanford, WA developed the plutonium The bomb was constructed in a secret city in Oak Ridge, TN In July 1945, the bomb was successfully tested at Los Alamos, New Mexico during Project Trinity The Manhattan Project

11 In April 1945, FDR died & his VP Harry Truman had to decide how to end the war in the Pacific

12 Whether to Drop the Atomic Bomb: Critical Thinking Decision B Truman’s Decision: C

13 In July 1945, the Big Three met at the Potsdam Conference to discuss the end of WWII Truman learned the atomic bomb was ready & issued the Potsdam Declaration to Japan: “surrender or face destruction”

14 When Japan refused to surrender, Truman ordered the bombing of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945Hiroshima After 3 days, Japan did not surrender so a 2 nd atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki After the second atomic bomb, Emperor Hirohito agreed to a surrender

15 Tinian Island, 1945 Little Boy Fat Man Enola Gay Crew

16 Col. Paul Tibbets & the A-Bomb

17 Hiroshima – August 6, 1945 ©70,000 killed immediately. ©48,000 buildings. destroyed. ©100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.







24 Nagasaki – August 9, 1945 ©40,000 killed immediately. ©60,000 injured. ©100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.



27 Japanese A-Bomb Survivors

28 Hiroshima Memorials



31 V-J Day (September 2, 1945)

32 World War II was over

33 Whether to Drop the Atomic Bomb: Critical Thinking Decision C

34 Crash Course #35


36 Whether to Build Einstein sends letter to FDR, 1939 Manhattan Project, under direction J. Robert Oppenheimer born; included Fermi, Bohr 100,000 workers in facilities in Hanford WA, Oak Ridge TN, Alamagordo NM Successful test: July 16, 1945 The fireball was so bright, a blind girl in a car several miles away saw the flash. The mushroom cloud rose 8 miles into sky; scientists 7 miles away were knocked down by the force, and it shattered windows 125 miles away. The blast left 1200 foot wide crater


38 Whether to Drop Would shorten the war Would save the lives of thousands of American soldiers who were predicted to die in an invasion of Japan Would save the lives of millions of Japanese who would die in the event of an invasion of Japan Warning message to the Soviet Union Would kill tens of thousands of civilians Unknown effects Releases the atomic bomb genie The Japanese were already defeated, and the bomb was literally “overkill”

39 Whether to Drop Truman is informed of Manhattan Project upon FDR’s death. Informed of successful test at Potsdam, June 1945. August 6 th, the Enola Gay drops “Little Boy” on Hiroshima at 1900 feet above city.100,000 Deaths August 9, “Fat Man” dropped on Nagasaki. 70,000 deaths USSR invaded Manchuria the same day; Japan surrendered 5 days later. People at center of explosion vaporized (temp of 100 Million degrees), more die of fatal burns and months later of radiation poisoning

40 Truman “We have used it against those who attacked without warning at Pearl Harbor, against those who have abandoned the pretense of obeying international laws of warfare. We have used it to shorten the agony of war, in order to save the lives of thousands and thousands of young Americans.”


42 Whether Truman Made the Right Decision After WWII, Oppenheimer became active in the failed effort to put all nuclear weapons and power under the direction of the United Nations. Einstein, a pacifist, regretted ever sending FDR the original letter. Today 8 countries are considered in the Nuclear Club: US, Russia, UK, France, China, India, Pakistan, North Korea. Israel is thought to have capability. South Africa did but dismantled its arsenal. Iran is currently in process.

43 Conclusions: The Impact of World War II ■ World War II was the biggest, most deadly, & most impactful war in world history: – Europe was destroyed by the war & lost its place as the epicenter of power in the world – The USA & USSR emerged as super powers & rivals competing for influence in the world – A United Nations was formed to replace the League of Nations to help promote peace – Colonized nation began to demand independence from Europeans

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