Presentation on theme: "Green Week 2013 The contribution of LIFE projects to the implementation and development of EU air quality policy and legislation."— Presentation transcript:
Green Week 2013 The contribution of LIFE projects to the implementation and development of EU air quality policy and legislation
Scope of the study Assess the contribution of LIFE ENV/INF projects to the implementation, dissemination and further development of EU air-related policies and legislation
Background 108 projects were identified as relevant in the period 2005- 2011 101 were short-listed for further analysis Carbon-related projects were not studied: different priority areas within the 6 th EAP
Structure of the study 1.Trends from 1992 until 2011 2.Evaluation of projects in relation to EU air policy and legislation 3.Analysis of projects achievements 4.Conclusions
1. Trends - Background 231 projects were identified as relating to air quality in the entirety of the LIFE programme (1992-2011)
1. Trends - Distribution of air-related LIFE projects per year
1. Trends - Grouping Projected were grouped in the following areas: – Assessment and monitoring of air quality – Pollution prevention – Policy and management tools – Pollution treatment – Waste management and recycling – Awareness-raising
1. Trends - Grouping Those were further broken down in the following sectors: – Industry – Transportation – Agriculture
1. Trends – Number of projects in different areas AreaNo. of projects Pollution prevention in industry66 Assessment and monitoring of air quality42 Policy and management systems in transportation23 Pollution prevention in transportation19 Policy and management tools19 Waste management and recycling18 Pollution treatment18 Awareness-raising11 Pollution prevention in agriculture8 Policy and management systems in industry4 Other pollution prevention3
1. Trends – Percentages of projects in different areas
1. Trends – Main findings I Most focus on preventing pollution from industrial activities (28.57% of all projects) This might have had an effect on the progressively decreasing number of projects addressing end-of-pipe emissions
1. Trends – Main findings II Monitoring and assessment of air quality projects were the majority during the early years of LIFE, but have weaned in the later years, although are still present This illustrates the initial need to acquire a good picture of the situation regarding air quality
1. Trends – Main findings III Policy and management tools regarding transportation and urban planning have surged during the past five years The same applies for pollution prevention technology systems in transportation Greater push towards the development of livable cities – This is illustrated by the adoption in 2006 of the Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment within the EAP.
1. Trends – Main findings IV A very small percentage of projects (4.76%) focused directly on communication with the public, campaigning or awareness-raising This might be the outcome of difficulties in quantifying the results of such projects Since all LIFE projects need to disseminate information to the public, decreased interest might have ensued for projects focusing solely on that
II. Legislation and policies The study looked at the legislation and policies addressed by the relevant LIFE projects
II. Legislation and policies – Short review of EU air policy The 6 th Environment Action Programme was launched in 2002 and will remain in force until 2012 Air quality falls within one of its four key environmental priorities, Environment and Health The objective is to achieve levels of air quality that do not give rise to significant negative impact on and risk to human health and environment.
II. Legislation and policies – Short review of EU air policy Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) – Launched in 2001 – Aims to review air quality policies and assess the progress taken towards attainment of long-term air quality objectives – Sets highest priority in dealing with particulate matter (PM) and ground-level ozone – High attention also given to acidification and eutrophication.
II. Legislation and policies – Short review of EU air policy The Thematic Strategy for Air Pollution – Developed in 2005 – Established air quality objectives to be achieved by 2020 – Significant reductions in emissions of: SO 2 (82%) NO X (60%) primary PM 2.5 (59%) VOCs (51%) ammonia (27%)
II. Legislation and policies – Short review of EU air policy Measures proposed within the TSAP for the realisation of those targets: – Stricter limit values for air pollutants – Increases in energy efficiency – Promotion of renewable energy sources – Further examination of the impact aviation and shipping have – Reduction in the use of nitrogen in fertilisers – Closer involvement of sectors affecting air quality
II. Legislation and policies – Relation with LIFE projects Nearly all LIFE projects relate in one way or another with the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution 75 projects aim for the reduction of at least one pollutant identified within the TSAP The rest 26 projects aim to create tools to monitor, enforce and build further awareness on pollution and its effects.
II. Legislation and policies – Pollutants addressed by projects PollutantNo. of projects NO x 28 Particulate matter26 VOCs19 Ozone10 CO9 SO x 9 Ammonia8 PAH, Hydrocarbons, Lead, Benzene 8
II. Legislation and policies - Remarks A significant number of projects addressed more than one air-related directive, while theres also significant cross-cutting with other thematic areas – It has been almost impossible to link a project exclusively to one legislative text Although LIFE ENV/INF projects implement a significant part of the legislation, some of it is not addressed at all – This applies mostly to legislation that is highly specialised, such as Directive 2009/126/EC on Stage II petrol vapour recovery during refuelling of motor vehicles at service stations The directives mostly addressed were the generic ones, such as Directive 2008/50/EC Air Quality Framework Directive and 2001/81/EC on National Emission ceilings
II. Legislation and policies – Air quality framework Directive No. of projects Air Quality Framework 96/62/EC & Daughter Directives Framework 83 2001/81/EC 2008/50/EC 2004/107/EC Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury, Nickel and Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons5 TOTAL88
II. Legislation and policies – Sources: Industry Industry No. of projects 84/360/EEC Industrial Plants28 96/61/EC 2008/1/EC 1999/13/ECSolvents8 2001/80/EC Large Combustion Plants3 TOTAL39
II. Legislation and policies – Sources: Waste Waste No. of projects 75/442/EEC Waste Framework8 2008/98/EC 2002/96/EC Electrical and Electronic Equipment5 91/689/EEC & 2002/965Hazardous Waste5 1999/31/ECLandfills4 2000/76/EC Waste Incineration3 TOTAL25
II. Legislation and policies – Sources: Transportation Transportation No. of projects 2003/30/ECBiofuels5 97/68/EC & 2005/33/EC Non-road mobile machinery & Sulphur in marine fuels2 2009/33/ECClean Road Transport2 TOTAL9
II. Legislation and policies – Project focus Sixty-five projects are dealing with reduction of pollutants, either through prevention of emissions or through pollution treatment technologies. Thirty-seven projects aim to develop policy instruments and monitoring tools in order to assess the effects air pollution has on human health. Only four projects address awareness raising and communication with stakeholders.
III. Where do projects intervene – Implementation of directives Most projects focus on the implementation of directives, particularly with regard to pollution prevention Some characteristic examples: – AMELIE (LIFE05 ENV/F/000053) aims to find reliable lead-free alternatives – UNIZEO (LIFE10 ENV/IT000347) aims to coat urea-based nitrogen fertiliser with zeolite, reducing air pollution from ammonia
III. Where do projects intervene – BAT A significant number of projects focuses on demonstrating or developing further the best available technique (BAT) Most of these projects are highly innovative in technology Some characteristic examples: – HotOxyGlass (LIFE07 ENV/F/000179) has led to the creation of the Boussois furnace, regarded as the greenest flat glass furnace in the world – WINTECC (LIFE06 ENV/D/000479) has developed innovative technologies for cleaner maritime transportation, through the development of a new propulsion system
III. Where do projects intervene – BAT Other projects further the understanding of BAT Some characteristic examples: – BATsGraph (LIFE07 ENV/E/000836) – development of eTool to help implement BAT in the printing industry – ZERO PLUS (LIFE05 ENV/E/000256) – management of liquid wastes by integrating existing BAT under real-life conditions
III. Where do projects intervene – BAT Other projects set new BAT Some characteristic examples: – VOCless pulping (LIFE06 ENV/FIN/000201) and VOCless waste water (LIFE09 ENV/FI/000568) attempt to integrate best components of current practices In this field the EC Reference Document on BAT is limited to just a few practices – ZEMSHIPS (LIFE06 ENV/D/000465) – the first hydrogen-powered passenger ship – aims to redefine fully the BAT for maritime transportation
III. Where do projects intervene – Monitoring A host of projects aims to monitor pollution dispersion and their effects on human health Some characteristic examples: – RESCATAME (LIFE08 ENV/E/000107) monitors pollution in real-time using air-quality sensors – MONALISA (LIFE05 ENV/F/000068) monitors pollen in the atmosphere by an online antigenicity/allergenicity measurement
III. Where do projects intervene – Development of policy tools Other projects aim to develop policy and management tools Some characteristic examples: – OPERA (LIFE09 ENV/IT/000092) develops a methodology through which local authorities can prepare, implement and monitor air quality plans that can be integrated within national and European plans – ATMOSYS (LIFE09 ENV/BE/000409) aims to set up an advanced air quality modelling system and web-based service
III. Where do projects intervene – Awareness-raising Only four projects worked solely with increasing awareness However, many projects not focusing on awareness per se undertook extensive dissemination strategies They spend approximately 7%-10% of their budget in this A characteristic example is the project SMAQ (LIFE05 ENV/GR/000214): – Opening and closing event – Production and distribution of 10,000 leaflets in five languages – A website – Two inter-regional workshops – Six publication in journals – Presentations at international symposia
III. Where do projects intervene – Awareness-raising There have been no LIFE INF projects related to air quality up until 2011. Projects focusing on awareness-raising have a much greater scope For example, LEADFREE (LIFE05 ENV/D/000197) set up a demonstration and training centre which reached approximately 600 European SMEs in the fields of electronics
III. Where do projects intervene – Acting as catalysts Many projects help implement local air-related programs and policies 26 projects have a municipality as beneficiary or associate – half of them in Italy Those projects have a combined budget over 50 million euro
III. Where do projects intervene – Acting as catalysts Other projects help integrate local communities with European legislation Some characteristic examples: – ROMAIR (LIFE08 ENV/F/000485) has the explicit goal of helping Romania integrate its policies with EU legislation by implementing an air quality modelling and forecast system Such projects are important for the further development and integration of regions They also help fine-tune the approach LIFE ENV/INF projects should follow trying to implement European legislation at the local setting through lessons learned.
III. Where do projects intervene – Acting as catalysts However, such integration is not equally-spread. 65% of all projects take place in just four member-states: Italy, Spain, France, Germany A push for more widespread push for all Member-States to benefit from LIFE would be beneficial for integration
IV. Analysis of achievements – Successes and failures of 2005-2011 projects PerformanceNo. of Projects Successful48 Unsuccessful5 Successful after LIFE project ended 2 Still open, on good track33 Still open, at initial phase7 Still open, with significant delays 6 TOTAL101
IV. Analysis of achievements – Strengths Technological Innovation Approximately one third of all air-related LIFE projects Many aim to develop breakthrough technology and to set new standards Can be risky and costly, but carry great promise
IV. Analysis of achievements – Strengths Integrative principles Facilitate cooperation among disjoined stakeholders and between stakeholders and the general public Expand the understanding regarding the entire system which surrounds a given practice, for example electric cars A key part is cooperation between stakeholders of different member-states, such as in project EC4MACS (LIFE06 ENV/PREP/A/000006)
IV. Analysis of achievements – Strengths Demonstration value & transfer potential Many projects are demonstrated in real conditions By implementing directives in local circumstances, they provide valuable lessons A host of projects are designed to be transferrable to other locales
V. Projects contributing to the development of new air- related policies and legislation - Opportunities Complementary sub-legislation to already existing texts – Aims mostly for local/national legislation – Is the result of technological innovation A characteristic example is ES-WAMAR (LIFE06 ENV/E/000044) – No legislation on slurry treatment existent in Spain – Legislation for wastewater applied in this case as well – The project aimed to develop further and refine existing laws – The Environment ministry asked for assistance in understanding BAT so as to develop the law 26/2007 on environmental liability (a transposition of Directive 2004/35/EC )
V. Projects contributing to the development of new air- related policies and legislation (Opportunities) New approaches not yet covered by existing EU legislation – Innovation is once more the driving force Examples include projects VOCless Waster Water (LIFE09 ENV/FI/000568) and BIOCOVER (LIFE05 ENV/DK/000141) which develop technologies for which no relevant legislation exists Electric and hydrogen-powered vehicles are also addressed by five projects – The demonstration value of those projects can aid the development of relevant legislation
V. Projects contributing to the development of new air- related policies and legislation - Opportunities Input for specific legislation The project PhotoPaq (LIFE08 ENV/F/000487) proposed new de-polluting materials that are photo-catalytic and self-cleaning as a method to fulfill the 6 th EAP objectives Many projects provide input for the implementation of legislation, by increasing the information base.
V. Projects contributing to the development of new air-related policies and legislation - Opportunities Contributing to the revision of specific legislation Project Sludges Wealth (LIFE09 ENV/IT/000186) proposes the revision of Directive 86/278/EEC on sewage sludge, which is outdated
V. Projects contributing to the development of new air- related policies and legislation - Opportunities Further development of related norms and standards Innovative projects work to set a point of reference for the development of future EU directives through redefining BAT A good example is BATinLoko (LIFE07 ENV/P/000625) – Input on the textile BAT Reference Document (BREF) – The Portuguese Environmental Agency already suggested using its standards for BAT application in the country
V. Projects contributing to the development of new air- related policies and legislation - Opportunities Dissemination of environmental legislation Only a few projects disseminate explicitly legislation An example is CLEAN AIR (LIFE11 ENV/DE/000495) – Aims to increase awareness regarding the Air Quality Directive – Capacity building within hundreds of NGOs, institutions etc. – Aims to reach 25 million European through concentrated media campaigns
VI. Frequently encountered barriers towards the implementation of air quality projects Problems with data Applies for monitoring and assessment projects Some problems encountered by projects: – Insufficient amount of meteorological stations – Data is costly – Historical data – needed to draw patterns – dont exist in digital form – Industries not obliged to give information or dont have good monitoring equipment – Pollution from non-point sources is diffused and its effects hard to quantify Statistical data are used, with lower accuracy This threat underlines the importance of monitoring projects
VI. Frequently encountered barriers towards the implementation of air quality projects Costs and the financial crisis Applies mostly for technologically innovative projects Greater than foreseen cost might constitute the technology industrially inapplicable Certain industries (e.g. aluminium, steel, iron etc.) are facing problems across Europe; relevant projects suffer as beneficiaries might pull out Projects that address external costs can suffer particularly, since they offer a real but not visible result
VI. Frequently encountered barriers towards the implementation of air quality projects Technology not mature enough or not accepted This can create problems due to lack of horizontal infrastructure, for instance for electric cars Skepticism is particularly a problem where there is liability involved Some projects require a know-how that is not widely spread: this threatens successful dissemination of practices
VI. Frequently encountered barriers towards the implementation of air quality projects Political changes and lack of cooperation Many projects rely on key political stakeholders (parties or person) and changes can jeopardise them – It is proposed that this can be addressed by working to include projects in the strategic plans of a locality Lack of cooperation (even suspicion) can exist between previously disjoined stakeholders Some industries might be traditionally skeptical for the environmental cause