Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Social protection in Asia and the Pacific Gabriele Koehler Development economist Visiting Fellow, Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team, IDS Sussex.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Social protection in Asia and the Pacific Gabriele Koehler Development economist Visiting Fellow, Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team, IDS Sussex."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social protection in Asia and the Pacific Gabriele Koehler Development economist Visiting Fellow, Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team, IDS Sussex EC Social Protection Training Course Asia and Pacific Region Bangkok June 2012 Session 1 Day 2

2 Overview of session: I.Introduction: the quiet revolution – snapshot from the global South II.The Asian-Pacific big picture III.Social protection schemes and instruments: interactive discussion IV.Summarising & outlook – quick quiz on good social protection

3 I. The quiet revolution Social protection gaining massive support in multilateral fora, in regional agreements, in countries, and in North-South and South- South development cooperation Numerous, and many large schemes in place across the globe Regional specifics Asia with some of the largest and most innovative schemes globally

4 Social protection reforms in middle- and low-income countries across the globe Asignación Universal por Hijo para Protección Social in Argentina Bolsa Familia (and the new Brasil Sem Miséria) programme) in Brazil Productive Safety Nets in Ethiopia Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee in India Di bao reforms in China Progresa and Oportunidades in Mexico.

5

6 Regional typologies of SP Latin America – addressing hunger and poverty, human development oriented, conditional cash transfers Africa – poverty and asset building, predominantly unconditional transfers South Asia – hunger, poverty, social exclusion, mixture of conditional and unconditional, employment schemes as a frequent format East Asia and Pacific – addressing risk, mixed conditional and unconditional cash transfers, CCTs in Indonesia or Philippines; pensions in East Asia; universal health systems in China, Philippines, Thailand Central Asia - emphasis on cash transfers to address transition poverty

7 Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America ArgentinaPrograma Familias BoliviaBeca Futuro BrazilBolsa Familia, Bolsa Escola ChileChile Solidario ColombiaFamilias en Accion Program Costa RicaPrograma Superemonos EcuadorBono de Desarrollo Humano El SalvadorRed Solidaria HondurasPrograma de Asignacion Familiar MexicoProgresa, Oportunidades NicaraguaRed de Proteccion Social

8 Unconditional Cash Transfers in sub-Saharan Africa

9 Food- related measures Social Assistance Public works Affirma- tive action Human rights Cooked school meals (IND) Subsidized PDS (IND, NPL, BGD) Subsidized grain prices Universal old age pension (NPL) Benazir Income Support Program (PAK) Child benefit (NPL) Unorganized sector health insurance (IND) National Rural Employment Guarantee (IND) Employment Generation Programme for the Poorest (BGD) Karnali Programme; Employment Guarantee Act (NPL) Employment generation for rural unskilled workers (PAK) Secondary school stipend for girls (BGD) Education for all (NPL) Child grants for girls (IND) Rural development and community based interventions (IND) Right to food/National Food Security Act (IND) Mid-day meal (IND) Right to education (all) Right to health services (all) Right to work (IND) Right to information (IND, BGD, NPL) Social protection: South Asia Social protection: South Asia

10 II. An Asian-Pacific snapshot – challenges & selected country examples

11 Unequal progress in sub-regions

12 The Asia-Pacific share of the worlds deprived Source: Asia-Pacific Regional MDG report 2011/12 (ESCAP/ADB/UNDP)

13

14 Social protection coverage

15 Cambodia

16 China Minimum Living Subsidy Scheme (DiBao) since 1997 Description The scheme pays the difference between the monthly income of poor households and an income minimum Objectives To assist poor households in urban China to provide five guarantees for the elderly in the areas of housing, food, clothing, medical care, and burial expenses transfers to childless and elderly people. Monthly transfers 102 Yuan for poor urban households 37 Yuan for poor rural households Target population and coverage The 3 NOs, no ability to work, no source of income, and no supporting from family members. In 2007 : 22.7 million poor urban households 34.5 million poor rural households 2020 target: 1.3 billion citizens.

17 India National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

18 Indonesia Objective: JAMKESMAS scheme: Access to health care to the poor and near poor (76.4 million people) Universal health insurance coverage by 2014 Components: Subsidized rice to targeted households (rice for the poor ) Scholarships for students from poor families JAMSOSTEK: pilot for informal economy workers Instruments: Unconditional Cash Transfers (2005 and 2008) Conditional cash transfer program (Program Keluarga Harapan) and Community Empowerment programme (PNPM).

19 Kazakhstan Targeted Social Assistance (TSA) scheme (2002) Objective: All families to receive the subsistence minimum, fixed by each region Audience: Families with children, the unemployed, care providers for children and the working poor Format monthly cash transfer Early assessment: certain problems defining eligibilities serving its fundamental purpose of providing basic assistance for the poor satisfactory number of family units were graduating from the scheme

20 Pakistan Benazir Income Support Programme (BISP) (2008) Largest direct cash grant scheme in Pakistans history 3.5 million economically distressed persons affected by poverty and inflation Cash transfers of $13 per month, disbursed every two months Women as transfer recipient in each household Poverty score card methodology (2010) National Database Registration Authority (NADRA) Partnership with private sector commercial banks From $154 million = 0.4 per cent of total government spending (2007/8) to $474 million = 1.3 per cent (2009/2010)

21 Solomon Islands Rapid Employment Project 2010 Audience: the urban poor especially youth, in the capital Objectives: generate income life-skill development training: life skills workshops dealing with domestic violence, money management and health awareness longer term employment prospects enhanced infrastructure and services, esp in informal settlements Planned outcome: estimated 500,000 labour days of work over the five years of the project road repair, maintenance, construction and garbage collection

22

23

24

25

26 ADB Social protection index Social protection expenditure The total number of beneficiaries of social protection programs coverage The number of poor beneficiaries of social protection programs distribution Social protection expenditure going to the poor impact Average for Asia: 0.36

27 III. Social protection schemes and instruments: interactive group discussion

28 Some guiding questions: What is the challenge? What is the vision? What type of intervention is in place? How does it work? What is the coverage? What is the cost? What are obstacles to this intervention? How could it be moved towards universalising or systematising social protection? What is missing?

29 Social protection by challenge SituationInterventionCountry examples Emergency and Crisis Situations Human Development Constraints – poverty, access to social services Seasonal Unemployment and Food Insecurity Health Shocks Vulnerable Groups

30 Social protection by types Income oriented cash transfers (family benefits, social pensions, etc.); food insecurity-oriented (food and cash; school meals); human development oriented (education, health grants, health insurance); social inclusion oriented (scholarships, girl child grants); Employment and asset-oriented (public works programmes, microcredit); emergency related (food for work, food subsidies); refugee/displaced person-conflict related

31 S ocial protection by type

32 SPF objectives Existing SP provision Planned SP provisions (strategy) GapsRecomme ndations Design gaps Implemen- tation issues Health Children Working age Elderly Social Protection Floor template: guarantees and objectives The Social Protection Situation Design gaps and implementation issues (to complete the SPF) Priority policy options to be decided through national dialogue Country level: a phased approach Step 2 –Assessment of social protection

33 Country discussion CountryInter- vention Challeng e add- ressed Objectiv e Indica tors of progress /success Cover age/cost /index Obstacle s Shortco mings Role for EC Del Bangla desh Cambo dia China India Indone sia Lao PDR Nepal Philippi nes Sri Lanka Tajikist an Thailan d Vietna m

34 GROUP WORK: SOCIAL PROTECTION COUNTRY PROGRAMMES Present 1-2 country´s programme within the group Distill main characteristics for both Prepare 5-minute summary for plenary

35 Country discussion CountryInterven tion Challenge addressed ObjectiveIndicators of progress/s uccess Coverage/c ost/index ObstacleShort- comings Role for EC Del Social pension Old age poverty Coverag e of all >70 Take up rate yr 2 … 0.5% GDP Min of Child Welfare Bias to well-off Bangla- desh Cambod ia China India Indonesi a Lao PDR Nepal Philippi nes Sri Lanka Tajikista n Thailand Vietnam

36 India: RSBY, NREGA Thailand: UC scheme, minimum pension scheme (500 THB) Cambodia: NSPS with clear reference to the SPF … including HEFs, CBHIs, Food distribution, PWPs,… Lao: extension of SHP for all Vietnam: 10 years Social security strategy Indonesia: Jamkesmas, Jampersal, PKH, Rice for the poor, PNPM China: minimum living standard guarantee program; new rural corporative medical care (NRCMC); health insurance for urban uninsured residents (HIUR); rural old- age pension Philippines: universal health reform Pathways to Four SPF guarantees Nepal: broad range Bangladesh: Strategy… Sri Lanka: … Tajikistan :…

37 IV. Summarising & outlook

38 India: RSBY, NREGA Thailand: UC scheme, minimum pension scheme (500 THB) Cambodia: NSPS with clear reference to the SPF … including HEFs, CBHIs, Food distribution, PWPs,… Lao: extension of SHP for all Vietnam: 10 years Social security strategy Indonesia: Jamkesmas, Jampersal, PKH, Rice for the poor, PNPM China: minimum living standard guarantee program; new rural corporative medical care (NRCMC); health insurance for urban uninsured residents (HIUR); rural old- age pension Philippines: universal health reform Pathways to social protection Nepal: broad range Bangladesh: Strategy… Sri Lanka: … Tajikistan :…

39 Country discussion CountryInter- vention Challeng es add- ressed Objectiv e Indica tors of progress/su ccess Cover age/cost/ind ex Obstacl es Shortcomi ngs R o le f o r E C D el Bangla desh Rural empoy ment/i ncome generat ion. Scale up 32% BPL; Employ ment; gender Cash for work env. Assets accum ulated p family Women have sustain income 2.5%ofGDPowners hip Y ChinaReform of SP system 5 social insuran ces & social assistan ce Rural/u rban. Urbanis ation ;ageing; Social stab; social justice Univers al soc sec system. Univ coverag e. Mult levels. sustain Expand rural pension 100% Urban pension increase vuln groups; combining pension funds/syste ms/modes. Investment of fund. Legal framework.97% med insurance 100 billRMB soc ass. …RMB investment in schemes 1.7 trill RMB Central /prov/l ocal govt Lack of policy framewor k; dispariite s rur/urban – regions – occupatio ns. Low benefits/r eimburse ment ; Med ins. Multiple counting; Govt only. Supply lim. Managing funds Y IndiaNREGARural pop / maj of poor: unempl oyment ; mig; low wage; prod Push rural growth ; local empl; Min wage; guarant eed leg instrum ent IS;Wage rate increase 100 days work/pers ondays; IS improved; Social audit Lack of awaren ess/de mand/ local level cap. Fiscal budget /50% implem entatio n N Indone sia Nat prog for comm empow erment Rural & urban disadba tged. IS Accelra te pov allevait on liveilho od & particip aiton Nation wide villages : large pop 72 mill poor Local mentors needed. Instit cap. Disparities large/marg comms/ge nder Reduce pov 8/10% Access to services Increase part of poor. Local Cap bldg Faciliati on. Attritio n of good staff. Work overloa d. Cultura l. Coord difficult..MIS sustain ability. Reg disparit ies Y NepalMany scheme s Pov. Conflict Env SE Lowest HDI Gap between commitme nt/impl National Coverage 3.5% GDP varies Approach needs to vary Pc.benefits low Weak gov. Suppy side weak. Confusi on o entitle ment: Prod assets missing Y Tajikist an Poor qual of service s;low pensio n/une mploy menty Pc income 1000$ Vulnera bitlies n.a. Tangibl e results Part of Sov Union collaps e.rethi nk role of state Poor targeting/i mproving Resource s lacking y Thailan d Vietna m Cash transfer s to poor families w school childre n From pov red for spec groups to univers al. Large progra mme. Compe nsate for user fees Social cohesio n Qual of servic es. Health insuran ce 60% cov. Formal insured ; not inform al Coevrage & distributio n of benefits; edu outcomes. Graduaiton Social insurance for informal sector Houesehold based cap Poverty line issue. Fiscal space. Sustain. depend ency Non condition al Y

40 QUICK QUIZ WHAT IS GOOD SOCIAL PROTECTION? … …

41 Rights based - Universal right/universal coverage Citizenship- or residents-based Accompanied by supply side measures Accompanied by decent work policy & action Addresses crises, chronic poverty, vulnerabilities Well-targeted and publicised entitlements for socially excluded groups Special effort to reach disadvantaged households/communities Systemic – uniting fragmented systems Sustainable, predictable, meaningful benefit levels Affordable and long-term sustainable Tax financed Empowerment: space to civil society and public action Manageable Advanced IT Monitoring & evaluation systems

42 Reading & resource list Armando Barrientos, Miguel Niño-Zarazúa and Mathilde Maitrot Social Assistance in Developing Countries Database. Brooks World Poverty Institute. University of Manchester. Version 5.0 July Sri Wening Handayani, 2010.Enhancing Social Protection in Asia and the Pacific. The Proceedings of the Regional Workshop. Asian Development Bank. Manila.. Gabriele Koehler, Transformative Social Protection: Reflections on Policy Experiences in Four South Asian Countries, IDS Bulletin Gabriele Koehler, Marta Calì, Mariana Stirbu Social protection in South Asia. A review. UNICEF Regional Office South Asia. _a_review_-_unicef_rosa_2009.pdf ILO. Global Extension of Social Security. GESS data base. protection.org/gimi/gess/ShowMainPage.do

43 Reading & resource list Social protection in Asia Research group Social protection in Asia Research group Social protection in Asia: research findings and policy lessons. Programme synthesis reporthttp://www.socialprotectionasia.org/Conf-prgram- pdf/SPA_SynthReport_web.pdfhttp://www.socialprotectionasia.org/Conf-prgram- pdf/SPA_SynthReport_web.pdf UN Development Group Asia-Pacific Social Protection Issues Brief. Prepared by UNDP Thematic Group on Social Protection. Annex. protection.org/gimi/gess/RessShowRessource.do?ressourceId=26321http://www.social- protection.org/gimi/gess/RessShowRessource.do?ressourceId=26321 UNDP 2011 Ensuring Inclusion: e-Discussion on Social Protection. Asia-Pacific Inclusive Growth and Development. Summary of e-Discussion. UNDP Asia and Pacific Regional Centre BANGKOK pdf UN ESCAP The Promise of Protection Social Protection and development in Asia and the Pacific. World Bank RESILIENCE, EQUITY, AND OPPORTUNITY. The World Banks Social Protection and Labor Strategy 2012–2022. Washington April / / /SPL_Strategy_ _FINAL.pdf


Download ppt "Social protection in Asia and the Pacific Gabriele Koehler Development economist Visiting Fellow, Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team, IDS Sussex."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google