Presentation on theme: "Social protection in Asia and the Pacific"— Presentation transcript:
1Social protection in Asia and the Pacific Gabriele KoehlerDevelopment economistVisiting Fellow, Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team, IDS SussexEC Social Protection Training CourseAsia and Pacific RegionBangkok June 2012Session 1 Day 2
2Overview of session:Introduction: the “quiet revolution” – snapshot from the global SouthThe Asian-Pacific big pictureSocial protection schemes and instruments: interactive discussionSummarising & outlook – quick quiz on “good” social protection
3I. The “quiet revolution” Social protection gaining massive support in multilateral fora, in regional agreements, in countries, and in North-South and South-South development cooperationNumerous, and many large schemes in place across the globeRegional specificsAsia with some of the largest and most innovative schemes globally
4Asignación Universal por Hijo para Protección Social in Argentina Social protection reforms in middle- and low-income countries across the globeAsignación Universal por Hijo para Protección Social in ArgentinaBolsa Familia (and the new Brasil Sem Miséria) programme) in BrazilProductive Safety Nets in EthiopiaMahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee in IndiaDi bao reforms in ChinaProgresa and Oportunidades in Mexico.Source RESILIENCE, EQUITY, AND OPPORTUNITY. The World Bank’s Social Protection and Labor Strategy 2012– Washington April page I; III.
6Regional typologies of SP Latin Americaaddressing hunger and poverty, “human development oriented”, conditional cash transfersAfricapoverty and asset building, predominantly unconditional transfersSouth Asiahunger, poverty, social exclusion, mixture of conditional and unconditional, employment schemes as a frequent formatEast Asia and Pacificaddressing risk, mixed conditional and unconditional cash transfers, CCTs in Indonesia or Philippines; pensions in East Asia; universal health systems in China, Philippines, ThailandCentral Asia- emphasis on cash transfers to address transition poverty
7Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America ArgentinaPrograma FamiliasBoliviaBeca FuturoBrazilBolsa Familia, Bolsa EscolaChileChile SolidarioColombiaFamilias en Accion ProgramCosta RicaPrograma SuperemonosEcuadorBono de Desarrollo HumanoEl SalvadorRed SolidariaHondurasPrograma de Asignacion FamiliarMexicoProgresa, OportunidadesNicaraguaRed de Proteccion SocialSource IDS Centre for Social ProtectionMany countries in Latin America running large conditional cash transfer programmesConditionalities – aiming to produce behavioural change and achieve direct and indirect outcomes. E.g, health and education non-income effectsBolsa familia:2003 reached 3.6 million families with a budget of US$1.1 billion2007 reaching 100% of its target of 11.1 million families (about 45 million people or a quarter of the country’s population) with a budget of over US$4.1 bn2008: government’s expenditures with the programme were estimated at US$6 bnThe programme raised participants’ income by 21% but by itself not enough to lift families out of poverty19% reduction in poverty severity (the degree to which poor families fall below the poverty line) and a 21% fall in the Gini (income inequality) indexbetween 1995 and 2004.increasing food and nutrition security in the country: 76% of the transfers spent on food, and families in the Bolsa Família programme have been able to improve their dietsBolsa Família accounts for less than 3% of direct government transfers, and only 0.5% to 0.8% of the country’s GDPSources: IDS Social Protection Centre; Rocha, Cecilia. (2009) “Developments in National Policies for Food and Nutrition Security in Brazil,” in: Development Policy Review Vol: 27 (1): 51-66.
8Unconditional Cash Transfers in sub-Saharan AfricaSource IDS Centre for Social ProtectionExample:South Africa Old Age Pensiona social pension, reaches around 2 million beneficiaries with a monthly benefit or around USD 70 to beneficiaries.Eligibility: South African citizens and permanent residents, males from age 63 years (age threshold coming down) and women from age 60 yearsMust comply with the means testUntil the introduction of the Child Support Grant, the social pension constituted the most important source of support for poor households.It is tax financed and currently absorbs around 1.4 per cent of GDP.Source (South African Social Security Agency) and p. 5, 6South Africa Child GrantPurpose:To assist families with child care and education expensesHas become crucial in light of pervasive poverty and because of vulnerabiltiy as a result of the HIV/AIDS pandemicEligibility:applicant and child must reside in South Africa;applicant must be the primary care giver of the child/ children concerned;the child/children under 15 years;means tested Limit of six non biological children;Source: (South African Social Security Agency )
9Social protection: South Asia Food-relatedmeasuresSocialAssistancePublicworksAffirma-tive actionHuman rightsNational Rural Employment Guarantee (IND)Employment Generation Programme for the Poorest (BGD)Karnali Programme; Employment Guarantee Act (NPL)Employment generation for rural unskilled workers (PAK)Right to food/National Food Security Act (IND)Mid-day meal (IND)Right to education (all)Right to health services (all)Right to work (IND)Right to information (IND, BGD, NPL)Cooked school meals (IND)Subsidized PDS (IND, NPL, BGD)Subsidized grain pricesUniversal old age pension (NPL)Benazir Income Support Program (PAK)Child benefit (NPL)Unorganized sector health insurance (IND)Secondary school stipend for girls (BGD)Education for all (NPL)Child grants for girls (IND)Rural development and community based interventions (IND)Another way of organising SP:Source of figure: updated from Bonnerjee and Köhler The challenge of food and nutrition insecurity and policy innovations from the South. Rethinking Development in an Age of Scarcity and Uncertainty. EADI/DSA Conference.https://www.conftool.com/gc2011/index.php?page=browseSessions&form_room=28&presentations=show&print=yes
10II. An Asian-Pacific snapshot – challenges & selected country examples
11Unequal progress in sub-regions Source: Asia-Pacific Regional MDG report 2011/12 (ESCAP/ADB/UNDP) from Storey and Anderson presentation 12 June
12The Asia-Pacific share of the world’s deprived Source Storey and Anderson presentation 12 JuneSource: Asia-Pacific Regional MDG report 2011/12 (ESCAP/ADB/UNDP)
14Social protection coverage Source: Social protection in Asia Research group Social protection in Asia: research findings and policy lessons . Programme synthesis report. Page 6.http://www.socialprotectionasia.org/Conf-prgram-pdf/SPA_SynthReport_web.pdf
15CambodiaSource: Ngy Chanphal 2010, Cambodia’s Social Protection Strategy for the Poorand Vulnerable in: Sri Wening Handayani, 2010.Enhancing Social Protection in Asia and the Pacific. The Proceedings of the Regional Workshop. Asian Development Bank. Manila..pp.291 ff., here page 297NOTE: The NSPS sets the framework for sustainable and comprehensive social protection for all citizens over the long term. However, for the near future, this strategy focuses on social protection for the poor and vulnerable, and therefore gives priority to the development of effective and affordable social safety nets targeted at the poor and vulnerable, with complementary social welfare services for special vulnerable groups.supporting, through social transfers and services, the poorest and most disadvantaged groups that cannot help themselves;(2) reducing the impact of risks that could lead to negative coping strategies and further impoverishment; and(3) supporting the poor to move out of poverty by building human capital and expanding their opportunities.
16China Minimum Living Subsidy Scheme (DiBao) since 1997 DescriptionThe scheme pays the difference between the monthly income of poor households and an income minimumObjectivesTo assist poor households in urban Chinato provide five guarantees for the elderly in the areas of housing, food, clothing, medical care, and burial expensestransfers to childless and elderly people.Monthly transfers102 Yuan for poor urban households37 Yuan for poor rural householdsTarget population and coverageThe “3 NOs”, no ability to work, no source of income, and no supporting from family members.In 2007 :22.7 million poor urban households34.5 million poor rural households2020 target:1.3 billion citizens.Social Assistance in Developing Countries DatabaseVersion 5.0 July 2010Armando Barrientos, Miguel Niño-Zarazúa and Mathilde Maitrot Brooks World Poverty Institute The University of Manchester
17India National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme The Indian government passed the (Mahatma Gandhi) National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) in The MGNREGA guarantees, as a legal right, up to 100 days of employment on a public works site for one member per household, with reservations for women workers. In , according to the Ministry of Rural Development, 45 million households were provided employment and 2.2 trillion person days of employment were generated (Annual Report 2008/9). It is thus the largest employment scheme globally and critical for food security. The wages are at the daily minimum wage rate of each state, and there are some provisions for on-site, rudimentary child crèches if more than five children need care while their mother works. Rosters of the people employed and their wages received are published to ensure transparency and accountability. The transformative potential for these schemes lies in their rights appeal, the effective provision of alternative livelihoods during lean seasons, the competitive upside pressure exerted on agricultural wages during the high season, the social empowerment potential and the creation of indispensable rural and community infrastructure. The MGNREGA model has been replicated in some form in at least three other South Asian countries - Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal..Source: Aniruddha Bonnerjee and Gabriele Köhler, The challenge of food and nutrition insecurity and policy innovations from the South. Paper prepared for EADI/DSA Conference, York, UK, September 2011.Expenditures:--Rs billion ($1.76 billion) in--Rs billion ($ 3.17 billion) in--Rs. 250 billion ($ 5 billion) in--Rs. 300 billion ($ 6 billion) allocated inThe expenditure is around 0.5% of GDP; 3.3% of budget exp.; 10% of plan exp.Source: National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA): Indian Experience Prof. S.Mahendra Dev. Chairman, Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP), Government of India found at:
18IndonesiaObjective:JAMKESMAS scheme: Access to health care to the poor and near poor (76.4 million people)Universal health insurance coverage by 2014Components:Subsidized rice to targeted households (“rice for the poor” )Scholarships for students from poor familiesJAMSOSTEK: pilot for informal economy workersInstruments:Unconditional Cash Transfers (2005 and 2008)Conditional cash transfer program (Program Keluarga Harapan) and Community Empowerment programme (PNPM).Source: based on inforamtion in the ILO GESS database
19Kazakhstan Targeted Social Assistance (TSA) scheme (2002) Objective:All families to receive the subsistence minimum, fixed by each regionAudience:Families with children, the unemployed, care providers for children and the working poorFormatmonthly cash transferEarly assessment:certain problems defining eligibilitiesserving its fundamental purpose of providing basic assistance for the poorsatisfactory number of family units were graduating from the schemeNotes: If the total income of a family unit falls below the regional poverty line, the family is entitled to receive TSA.The fact that a significant proportion of the recipients are working shows that such transfers can also serve as a wage subsidySource: UN ESCAP The Promise of Protection Social Protection and development in Asia and the Pacific. pages 42-43
20Pakistan Benazir Income Support Programme (BISP) (2008) Largest direct cash grant scheme in Pakistan’s history3.5 million economically distressed persons affected by poverty and inflationCash transfers of $13 per month, disbursed every two monthsWomen as transfer recipient in each householdPoverty score card methodology (2010)National Database Registration Authority (NADRA)Partnership with private sector commercial banksFrom $154 million = 0.4 per cent of total government spending (2007/8) to $474 million = 1.3 per cent (2009/2010)Source: Haris Gazdar Collective for Social Science Research Karachi, Pakistan, and Faiza Effendi UNDP Regional Bureau for Asia and the Pacific (RBAP), Bangkok.E-discussion on social protection in Asia and the Pacific. [ap-igd] e-Discussion Part 1: Key Features of Successful Social Protection SchemesSeptember 2011
21Solomon Islands Rapid Employment Project 2010 Audience:the urban poor especially youth, in the capitalObjectives:generate incomelife-skill development training: life skills workshops dealing with domestic violence, money management and health awarenesslonger term employment prospectsenhanced infrastructure and services, esp in informal settlementsPlanned outcome:estimated 500,000 labour days of work over the five years of the projectroad repair, maintenance, construction and garbage collectionSource: UN ESCAP The Promise of Protection Social Protection and development in Asia and the Pacific.Page 67
22UN Development Group Asia-Pacific 2011. Social Protection Issues Brief UN Development Group Asia-Pacific Social Protection Issues Brief. Prepared by UNDP Thematic Group on Social Protection. Annex.
23UN Development Group Asia-Pacific 2011. Social Protection Issues Brief UN Development Group Asia-Pacific Social Protection Issues Brief. Prepared by UNDP Thematic Group on Social Protection. Annex.
24UN Development Group Asia-Pacific 2011. Social Protection Issues Brief UN Development Group Asia-Pacific Social Protection Issues Brief. Prepared by UNDP Thematic Group on Social Protection. Annex.
25UN Development Group Asia-Pacific 2011. Social Protection Issues Brief UN Development Group Asia-Pacific Social Protection Issues Brief. Prepared by UNDP Thematic Group on Social Protection. Annex.
26ADB Social protection index Social protection expenditure—The total number of beneficiaries of social protection programs— “coverage”The number of poor beneficiaries of social protection programs— “distribution”Social protection expenditure going to the poor— “impact”Average for Asia: 0.36Bob Baulch, Axel Weber, Joe Wood . Social Protection Index for Committed Poverty Reduction. Volume 2: Asia . Asian Development Bank
27III. Social protectionschemes and instruments:interactive group discussion
28Some guiding questions: What is the challenge?What is the vision?What type of intervention is in place?How does it work?What is the coverage?What is the cost?What are obstacles to this intervention?How could it be moved towards universalising or systematising social protection?What is missing?
29Social protection by challenge SituationInterventionCountry examplesEmergency and Crisis SituationsHuman Development Constraints – poverty, access to social servicesSeasonal Unemployment and Food InsecurityHealth ShocksVulnerable GroupsSource: based on: Ngy Chanphal 2010, Cambodia’s Social Protection Strategy for the Poorand Vulnerable in:Sri Wening Handayani, 2010.Enhancing Social Protection in Asia and the Pacific. The Proceedings of the Regional Workshop. Asian Development Bank. Manila..pp.291 ff., here page 302 ff
30Social protection by types Income oriented cash transfers (family benefits, social pensions, etc.);food insecurity-oriented (food and cash; school meals);human development oriented (education, health grants, health insurance);social inclusion oriented (scholarships, girl child grants);Employment and asset-oriented (public works programmes, microcredit);emergency related (food for work, food subsidies);refugee/displaced person-conflict related
31Social protection by type To kick off the discussion, revert to one of the possible classification systems, as a help to organise the discussion of the Asian and Pacific examples.Source: Armando Barrientos, Miguel Niño-Zarazúa and Mathilde Maitrot Social Assistance in Developing Countries Database Version 5.0 July 2010 Brooks World Poverty Institute The University of Manchester
32Planned SP provisions (strategy) Implemen-tation issues Country level: a phased approachStep 2 –Assessment of social protectionSPF objectivesExisting SP provisionPlanned SP provisions (strategy)GapsRecommendationsDesign gapsImplemen-tation issuesHealthChildrenWorking ageElderlyThe Social Protection SituationDesign gaps and implementation issues (to complete the SPF)Social Protection Floor template: guarantees and objectivesPriority policy options to be decided through national dialogue
33Country discussion Bangladesh Cambodia China India Indonesia Lao PDR Inter-ventionChallenge add-ressedObjectiveIndicators of progress/successCoverage/cost/indexObstaclesShortcomingsRole for EC DelBangladeshCambodiaChinaIndiaIndonesiaLao PDRNepalPhilippinesSri LankaTajikistanThailandVietnam
34GROUP WORK: SOCIAL PROTECTION COUNTRY PROGRAMMES Present 1-2 country´s programme within the groupDistill main characteristics for bothPrepare 5-minute summary for plenary
35Country discussion Social pension Old age poverty InterventionChallenge addressedObjectiveIndicators of progress/successCoverage/cost/indexObstacleShort-comingsRole for EC DelSocial pensionOld age povertyCoverage of all >70Take up rate yr 2 …0.5% GDPMin of Child WelfareBias to well-offBangla-deshCambodiaChinaIndiaIndonesiaLao PDRNepalPhilippinesSri LankaTajikistanThailandVietnam
36Pathways to “Four SPF guarantees” Bangladesh: Strategy…China: minimum living standard guarantee program; new rural corporative medical care (NRCMC); health insurance for urban uninsured residents (HIUR); rural old-age pensionTajikistan :…India: RSBY, NREGACambodia: NSPS with clear reference to the SPF … including HEFs, CBHIs, Food distribution, PWPs,…Thailand: UC scheme, minimum pension scheme (500 THB)Lao: extension of SHP for allIndo several components – make people more employablePhilippines: universal health reformSri Lanka: …Nepal: broad rangeIndonesia: Jamkesmas, Jampersal, PKH, Rice for the poor, PNPMVietnam: 10 years Social security strategy
38Pathways to social protection Bangladesh: Strategy…China: minimum living standard guarantee program; new rural corporative medical care (NRCMC); health insurance for urban uninsured residents (HIUR); rural old-age pensionTajikistan :…India: RSBY, NREGACambodia: NSPS with clear reference to the SPF … including HEFs, CBHIs, Food distribution, PWPs,…Thailand: UC scheme, minimum pension scheme (500 THB)Lao: extension of SHP for allIndo several components – make people more employablePhilippines: universal health reformSri Lanka: …Nepal: broad rangeIndonesia: Jamkesmas, Jampersal, PKH, Rice for the poor, PNPMVietnam: 10 years Social security strategy
39Country discussion Bangladesh Inter-ventionChallenges add-ressedObjectiveIndicators of progress/successCoverage/cost/indexObstaclesShortcomingsRole for EC DelBangladeshRural empoyment/income generation. Scale up32% BPL;Employment; genderCash for work env .Assets accumulated p familyWomen have sustain income2.5%ofGDPownershipYChinaReform of SP system 5 social insurances & social assistanceRural/urban.Urbanisation;ageing;Social stab; social justiceUniversal soc sec system. Univ coverage. Mult levels. sustainExpand rural pension 100%Urban pension increase vuln groups; combining pension funds/systems/modes. Investment of fund. Legal framework.97% med insurance100 billRMB soc ass.…RMB investment in schemes1.7 trill RMBCentral/prov/local govtLack of policy framework; dispariites rur/urban – regions – occupations. Low benefits/reimbursement ;Med ins. Multiple counting;Govt only.Supply lim.Managing fundsIndiaNREGARural pop / maj of poor: unemployment; mig; low wage; prodPush rural growth; local empl;Min wage; guaranteed leg instrumentIS;Wage rate increase100 days work/persondays; IS improved;Social auditLack of awareness/demand/local level cap. Fiscal budget/50% implementationNIndonesiaNat prog for comm empowermentRural & urban disadbatged. ISAccelrate pov allevaiton liveilhood & participaitonNationwide villages: large pop 72 mill poor50000 Local mentors needed. Instit cap. Disparities large/marg comm’s/genderReduce pov 8/10%Access to servicesIncrease part of poor. Local Cap bldgFaciliation.Attrition of good staff.Work overload.Cultural. Coord difficult..MIS sustainability.Reg disparitiesNepalMany schemesPov. ConflictEnvSELowest HDIGap between commitment/implNationalCoverage3.5% GDP variesApproach needs to varyPc.benefits lowWeak gov.Suppy side weak.Confusion o entitlement:Prod assets missingTajikistanPoor qual of services;low pension/unemploymentyPc income 1000$Vulnerabitlies n.a.Tangible resultsPart of Sov Union collapse.rethink role of statePoor targeting/improvingResources lackingyThailandVietnamCash transfers to poor families w school childrenFrom pov red for spec groups to universal. Large programme.Compensate for user feesSocial cohesionQual of servic es. Health insurance 60% cov.Formal insured; not informalCoevrage & distribution of benefits; edu outcomes. GraduaitonSocial insurance for informal sectorHouesehold basedcapPoverty line issue. Fiscal space. Sustain. dependencyNon conditionalCountry discussion
41QUICK QUIZ WHAT IS “GOOD SOCIAL PROTECTION”? Rights based - Universal right/universal coverageCitizenship- or residents-basedAccompanied by supply side measuresAccompanied by decent work policy & actionAddresses crises, chronic poverty, vulnerabilitiesWell-targeted and publicised entitlements for socially excluded groupsSpecial effort to reach disadvantaged households/communitiesSystemic – uniting fragmented systemsSustainable, predictable, meaningful benefit levelsAffordable and long-term sustainableTax financedEmpowerment: space to civil society and public actionManageableAdvanced ITMonitoring & evaluation systems
42Reading & resource list Armando Barrientos, Miguel Niño-Zarazúa and Mathilde Maitrot Social Assistance in Developing Countries Database. Brooks World Poverty Institute. University of Manchester . Version 5.0 JulySri Wening Handayani, 2010.Enhancing Social Protection in Asia and the Pacific. The Proceedings of the Regional Workshop. Asian Development Bank. Manila..Gabriele Koehler, „Transformative Social Protection: Reflections on Policy Experiences in Four South Asian Countries‟, IDS BulletinGabriele Koehler, Marta Calì, Mariana Stirbu Social protection in South Asia. A review. UNICEF Regional Office South Asia.ILO. Global Extension of Social Security. GESS data base.
43Reading & resource list Social protection in Asia Research group Social protection in Asia: research findings and policy lessons . Programme synthesis reporthttp://www.socialprotectionasia.org/Conf-prgram-pdf/SPA_SynthReport_web.pdfUN Development Group Asia-Pacific Social Protection Issues Brief. Prepared by UNDP Thematic Group on Social Protection. Annex.UNDP 2011 Ensuring Inclusion: e-Discussion on Social Protection . Asia-Pacific Inclusive Growth and Development. Summary of e-Discussion. UNDP Asia and Pacific Regional Centre BANGKOK.UN ESCAP The Promise of Protection Social Protection and development in Asia and the Pacific.World Bank RESILIENCE, EQUITY, AND OPPORTUNITY. The World Bank’s Social Protection and Labor Strategy 2012– Washington April