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© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr.-Ing. E.h. Dr. h.c. Fritz Klocke Dipl.-Ing. Dieter Lung Dipl.-Ing. Ralf Schlosser Bilbao,
Seite 2© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Agenda Introduction 1 Fields of Action in Energy- and Ressource-Efficient Manufacturing 2 Balancing 3 Adapted Process-Design leading to Resource- and Energy-Savings 4 Summary 5
Seite 3© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Industrial society in strained relations Environment, climate, recources Economy growth welfare Individual and collective needs Overall balance Quelle: Acatech, oct. 2007
Seite 4© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT EnvironmentMobility Energy Megatrends What is the relevance of manufacturing engineering? Mobilit CommunicationsHealthSafety Quelle: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Technical Science and Engineering have to deliver Solutions!
Seite 5© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT How will we be able to cope with the polylemma of environment, resources and demography? Demographical development –2005: 6,5 billion humans –2040: 10 billion humans 1 Environment and resources –Finite resource availability –Climate change Change of paradigms 1 Source: United Nations, 2007 Moore Goods with less Resources
Seite 6© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Company: Main target is profit on a long term perspective Energy consumption in Germany ~ 10 Porsche Boxster (CO 2 -emission, km) ~ 12 living houses (electricity - each 3600 KWh per year) ~ 228 fridges (each 198 KWh per year) Energy efficiency – Saves cost and increases popularity Challenges Resource efficiency Energy efficiency Renewable resources 1 state of the art machining center needs about kWh electricity per year Source: German Ferderal Bureau of Statistics, 2007
Seite 7© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Energy flow in Petajoule of the Federal Republik of Germany (2008) Import Domestic production 51 Stock removal Industry Traffic Households Trade, service, business Export and bunkering 519 Non energetic consumption Conversion losses 519 Consumption in the energy sectors 35 Statistical differences Source: Acatech, AGEB, 2009
Seite 8© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Agenda Introduction 1 Fields of Action in Energy- and Ressource-Efficient Manufacturing 2 Balancing 3 Adapted Process-Design leading to Resource- and Energy-Savings 4 Summary 5
Seite 9© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Fields of Action and Research Topics optimisation of process-stability and -quality (zero-error production) resource-efficiency of mechanical manufacturing processes and systems energy-efficiency of thermal and chemical manufacturing processes closed resource-cycles within all process chains and systems loss-free infrastructural performance of production and manufacturing facilities development of methods for sustainable resource application Input-Flow Prozess Output-Flow Input-Flow Process- steps n Information Material Energy Output-Flow Information Material Energy InformationMaterialEnergy InformationMaterialEnergy Ressource-Efficiente Production and Sustainable Processes figure: Ressource-Flows of Production-Systems Source: EFFPRO Study from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research
Seite 10© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Agenda Introduction 1 Fields of Action in Energy- and Ressource-Efficient Manufacturing 2 Balancing 3 Adapted Process-Design leading to Resource- and Energy-Savings 4 Summary 5
Seite 11© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Energy efficient manufacturing Balance envelopes How can we balance manufacturing? –Production site envelope Production site evaluation –Machine tool envelope Machine tool assesment –Process envelope Assesment models on a physical process level Source: Index, Daikin, AL-KO, Boge, Schuch Process Machine tool Production site
Seite 12© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT CECIMO Activities Self Regulatory Initiative Motivation: –Our vision as a responsible, sustainable and highly innovative sector is to cover environmental aspects early in the process from R&D and design through to production, comprising also post-production throughout the whole life cycle of our products. Challenge: –Each machine tool should is an individual product with its own environmental performance improvement potential, a standardisation is not target-orientated Approach: –The intended goal of the Self Regulatory Initiative (SRI) is to increase the ecological performance of each machine tool while maintaining the freedom of innovation –It will not be bound to mandatory requirements. This allows the machine tool industry to define their own rules in the framework of the Ecodesign Directive, while structure, products and customer needs are taken into consideration. Source: CECIMO, Gildemeister, DST, Heller
Seite 13© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Assessment of a tool changer in machine tools (ECO-Footprint) The life cycle as the balance envelope Sum PT Packaging PT Hydraulic/ pneumatic PT Machine enclosure PT Coolant system PT Tool changer PT Head PT Z-Module PT Y-Module PT X-Module PT 45719,3479,23137,0113,82417,1814,815073,03427,09116,711140,7 % Eco-Points PT Eco-Indicator PT Inputs/OutputsActivityLife cycle phase 3,730,10,086C45MaterialRaw material manufact. 3,125,20,0241 Truck (24t)Transport (3000km)Logistics 0,75,80,026ElectricityEnergy consumptionManufacturing 91,9748,80,026ElectricityEnergy consumptionUse and maintenance 350 kg 0,6 4,9 0,014C45MaterialDisposal ,8 Sum Unit kg tkm kWh 28800kWh Amount Green Machining Green Technology Green Factory Sustainable Entrepreneurship Source: PROLIMA
Seite 14© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Assessment of resource consumption with Environmental Product Lifecycle Management Life cycle phases Costs categories Product structure Labour costs Manufacturing Machine enclosure Cost element Source: IEC
Seite 15© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Input power Chip conveyor Electronics Compressed air Ancillary units and losses 25% 75% Spindle - 30% Cooling unit - 20% Cooling - 15% Drives - 12% Hydraulics - 11% 88% 100% Process performance Performance distribution in maschine tools Today Source: BMW Source: Measurements according to VDW, INDEX 2008, EFFPRO, FHG 2008, Gildemeister, DST, Heller
Seite 16© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Power demand in a cutting process Peaks occur due to: –gaining operating conditions –acceleration of the spindle Three areas of power demands can be distinguished: –Standby-Load (constant, only depending on machine tool) –Idling-Load (variable, depending on machine and process) –Process-Load (variable, depending on process parameters) t Process Idle Standby Illumination, Air conditioning, Compressed air, Cooling lubricants … Machine tool Periphery constant P variable t main t cycle t non pro
Seite 17© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Agenda Introduction 1 Fields of Action in Energy- and Ressource-Efficient Manufacturing 2 Balancing 3 Adapted Process-Design leading to Resource- and Energy-Savings 4 Summary 5
Seite 18© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Power consumption reduce process parameters Energy per unit increase process parameters Cutting velocity /(m/min) Feed per tooth f / mm Cutting power P e / W Cutting velocity /(m/min) Feed per tooth f / mm Specific cutting energy E e,spec. = E e /Q z Balancing approaches for the electrical energy consumption of manufacturing processes (drilling operation) For real process evaluation the process result has to be related to the changes on the product. For cutting processes the relation of the specific energy E c,spec =E e /Q z is a workpiece independent relation.
Seite 19© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Energy Efficiency by Short Processing Time: High Requirements for Process Automation Source: AWK08, Heidelberger Druckmaschinen Time for tool change Distribution primary time second. time 15s 8,5s 2s <1,5s 38% 62% 59% 41% 25% 75% 13% 87% [s] n- n Exemplary Drilling Process: Positioning 200 mm Diameter 12 mm Depth 20 mm Distance of Holes 100 mm tool change conventional NC- Machine Tool conventional NC- Machine Tool, improved cutting parameters HPC Machine Tool, desired parameters spindle Positioning Processing HPC Machine Tool, parameters implemented 100 mm Zeit n+
Seite 20© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Resource Saving by Process Modification and –Substitution An example in Bevel Gear Manufacturing Conventional process chain Forging Soft turning, drilling, tapping with cooling lubricant Gear cutting with lubrication Case hardening Grinding with cooling lubricant Gear lapping Screwing Forging Soft turning, drilling, tapping with cooling lubricant Gear cutting with lubrication Case hardening Grinding with cooling lubricant Gear lapping Screwing Optimisation step 1. Hard turning 2. Optimisation step Gear cutting dry Wet machining: Cutting material: HSS Coating: TiN Dry gear cutting Elimination lubrication/ year ca l Dry machining: Cutting material:VHM Coating:TiAlN New process parameters: Feed f Cutting speed v c 3. Optimisation step 3. Soft turning with cooling lubricant Welding Soft turning with cooling lubricant Elimination cooling lubricant system, consumption/ year Energy: 1,15 Mio. kW/h Medium: 1052 m³ Filter fleece: ca. 45 t Screwing of crown wheel : - Process drilling and tapping - central cooling lubricant system Welding of crown wheel : - Process Elimination of drilling and tapping - Elimination of a central cooling lubricant system Welding Hard turning Source: BMW
Seite 21© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Balancing product features in the manufacturing phase Increasing product functionality Goal: –Increase product functionality and duration of usage phase Functionality is influenced by surface and rim zone properties, which are induced by process chains, however the correlation is more or less unknown Necessity for research: –Explore correlation between surface and rim zone and functionality –Identification of process chains which improve functionality –Identification of process parameters which improve functionality Processi Grinding, Hard-turning,... Parametersx i,j Feed v w, Cutting speed v c,... Functionalityf Rolling fatigue life,... Surface propertiesy i,k Roughness, Hardness, Residual stress, microstructure,...
Seite 22© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Development of a methodology Technology navigator All relevant characteristics in a single portfolio Function footprint defines ideal surface and rim zone Technology chains may be compared through further economical and ecological characteristics Technology Footprint process chain T1Technology Footprint process chain T2Function Footprint rel. resource consumption Energy demand Resource demand Material cut-off Unit cost Eco- characteristic Surface Technology navigator Technological characteristic Claim Roughness Rz Roughness Ra Residual stress... value. Function forecast T1 T2
Seite 23© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Agenda Introduction 1 Fields of Action in Energy- and Ressource-Efficient Manufacturing 2 Balancing 3 Adapted Process-Design leading to Resource- and Energy-Savings 4 Summary 5
Seite 24© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Science and invention Research, teaching, education Creativity and enabler Innovation and market Entrepreneur, Consumer Economy efficiency and implementation Government general conditions Freedom degree of regulation Challenge Personal responsibility Knowledge Money Social climate Willingness to change Chance utilization Confidence in experts and future People Boundary Conditions: Circle of Innovation Source: acatech, Milberg 2007 Sustainable growth by innovation Knowledge Sustainable growth by innovation
Seite 25© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Agenda Introduction 1 Fields of Action in Energy- and Ressource-Efficient Manufacturing 2 Balancing 3 Adapted Process-Design leading to Resource- and Energy-Savings 4 Summary 5
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