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MAGIC MOMENTS: The Politics of Social Protection Gabriele Koehler Development economist Visiting Fellow, Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team, IDS.

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Presentation on theme: "MAGIC MOMENTS: The Politics of Social Protection Gabriele Koehler Development economist Visiting Fellow, Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team, IDS."— Presentation transcript:

1 MAGIC MOMENTS: The Politics of Social Protection Gabriele Koehler Development economist Visiting Fellow, Vulnerability and Poverty Reduction Team, IDS Sussex EC Social Protection Training Course Asia and Pacific Region Bangkok 12-15 June 2012 Day 3 session 1

2 The politics of social protection QUICK QUIZ I.) Magic moments – policy moments II.) Policy pushes globally and regionally – policy diffusion III.) The politics of social protection at the country level IV.) Exercise V.) Quick summary


4 Rights based - Universal right/universal coverage Citizenship- or residents-based Accompanied by supply side measures Accompanied by decent work policy & action Addresses crises, chronic poverty, vulnerabilities Well-targeted and publicised entitlements for socially excluded groups Special effort to reach disadvantaged households/communities Systemic – uniting fragmented systems Sustainable, predictable, meaningful benefit levels Affordable and long-term sustainable Tax financed Empowerment: space to civil society and public action Manageable Advanced IT Monitoring & evaluation systems

5 I.) Magic moments – policy moments Shift in domestic political dynamics – such as – Change of government – Political transitions – Change in economic lead paradigm – Burning issues – New fiscal resources – Major financial or economic crisis – Natural disaster – End of an armed conflict Political will

6 II.) Policy pushes globally and regionally Changing international power dynamics Economic dynamism in the South leading to a new international economic geography Emergence of the G-20 and the BRICs Globalisation new technologies changing production and trade patterns IT changing information culture More transformative international development paradigms Keynesianism and a concern for employment, decent work and social protection focus on social inclusion multidimensional poverty concepts awareness of child poverty in developed and developing countries A drive for equity the emerging trend for a rights based approach – universalist – transformative agenda

7 MDGs and social protection Accelerated push for social protection & the global social floor since 2008 global crisis UN system together with the IFIs (2009 CEB decision) 2010 high level conference on the MDGs 2011 UN coalition on SP 2012 International Labour Conference and the social floor Also reemerging discussion on role of the state

8 EU and social protection Accelerated push for social protection in EU discussions – Treaty of Rome (1958) – Update: Treaty of Lisbon (2009) – Europe 2020 (2010) Diffusion into EU development cooperation policies European Development Report 2010 PovNet papers on social protection and decent work and EC-UN show and tell meetings 2012 Communication: consultation process (Jan-March 2012) and document (at Council by October)

9 G20 2011. Seoul development consensus 1)infrastructure, 2)private investment and job creation, 3)human resource development, 4)trade, 5)financial inclusion, 6)growth with resilience, 7)food security, 8)domestic resource mobilization, 9)knowledge sharing

10 ESCAP and social protection

11 Subregional processes

12 ASEAN Socio-cultural community blueprint pillars Human development Social welfare and protection Social justice and rights Environmental sustainability An ASEAN identity Narrowing the development gap

13 The BRICS and social protection: Source: BRICS+map&hl=en&client=safari&sa=X&rls=en&biw=1280&bih=611&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=RqNceHxgRU8i9M:&imgrefurl=

14 III. The politics of social protection at the country level

15 Social protection in action Individual/household Community – extended family/neighbours Community – charity CSOs – domestic or foreign Government – domestic or foreign

16 Social protection policy Middle classes Elites in legislation or decision making and electoral politics Grass roots organisations, trade unions and their connections to the poor International pressure or models or fashions

17 Policy politics example 1: Social protection pensions, poverty transfers, mainstreaming (Hickey) The political context The key drivers of change The policy spaces within The forms of poverty data and analysis used in relation to the interventions Shifting ideologies and discourses of development mobilised behind interventions for the poorest The politics of their design and implementation modalities The extent to which they help construct social contracts between state and citizenry.

18 Policy politics example 2: Creating a welfare state (Sandbrook et al) Causal factors Structural – state formation Configurational – constellation of classes, political parties and civil society Conjunctural – coalescing of organised actors

19 Policy politics example 3: Conditional cash transfer: Bolsa familia (IPC) The political context Affordability Design elements (size of the grant; targeting features) Electoral effects

20 Policy politics example 4: child grant (Escap/Koehler) – Recognising a policy moment – Seizing it – Building on existing institutional history – Creating the argument – Creating coalitions – Mobilising financial resources – Supporting government and integrating with other policies

21 Policy politics example 5: Introducing pension/health reform (Weyland) improvements in communication and trans­ portation inspiration from foreign models and principles decision-makers participate in transnational networks rule making at the international level international organisations seek to persuade, coax, push, or force governments to adopt policy ideas

22 Exercise: Adopting a national social protection system Background: Parliamentary consultation on institutionalising a national social protection system Ministry of Welfare proposal to introduce a NSPS Ministry of Labour opposed Ministry of Finance opposed Powerful NGO proposing immediate introduction Government under strong pressure for policies to address poverty and vulnerability and enhance governance and efficiency Opposition comprised of technocrats which see risks of populism, dependency issues, technical design shortcomings, affordability Task: Split into four groups, choose Indonesia, Nepal, Tajikistan, Vietnam examples 1.Revisit your brief, challenges and obstacles listed, and deepen them with examples of policy 2.List out potential strategic alliances or analytical references 3.Prepare arguments Ministry of Welfare could present 15 minutes Plenary: list out your arguments (3 minutes per country) 22

23 India: RSBY, NREGA Thailand: UC scheme, minimum pension scheme (500 THB) Cambodia: NSPS with clear reference to the SPF … including HEFs, CBHIs, Food distribution, PWPs,… Lao: extension of SHP for all Vietnam: 10 years Social security strategy Indonesia: Jamkesmas, Jampersal, PKH, Rice for the poor, PNPM China: minimum living standard guarantee program; new rural corporative medical care (NRCMC); health insurance for urban uninsured residents (HIUR); rural old- age pension Philippines: universal health reform Pathways to social protection Nepal: broad range Bangladesh: Strategy… Sri Lanka: … Tajikistan :…

24 Indonesia Inter- vention Challenge s add- ressed ObjectiveIndica tors of progress/succ ess Cover age/cost/inde x ObstaclesShortc oming s ECEC Nat prog for comm empowe rment large pop 72 mill poor Rural & urban disavant aged. IS Accelera te pov alleviati on, liveilhoo ds & participa tion Nationw ide. 65000 villages 50000 Local mentors needed. Instit cap. Disparities large/marg comms/gen der Reduce pov 8/10% Access to services Increase part of poor. Local cap bldg Faciliation. Attrition of good staff. Work overload. Cultural. Coord difficult..MIS sustainability. Reg disparities Y

25 Nepal Inter- vention Challenge s add- ressed ObjectiveIndica tors of progress/succ ess Cover age/cost/inde x Obstacle s Shortcomin gs ECEC Many schemes Pov., Conflict Environ ment, Social exclusio n, Lowest HDI Gap between commitment /implementa tion National Coverage 3.5% GDP varies Approach needs to vary. P.c.benefits low Weak gov. Supply side weak. Confusi on entitlem ent Prod assets missing Y

26 Tajikistan Inter- vention Challenges add- ressed ObjectiveIndica tors of progress/succe ss Cover age/cost/index ObstaclesShortcomingsEC Poor qual of services; low pension/ unemplo ymen;lo w income, Pc income 1000$. Vulnerabi tlies n.a. Tangible results Part of Sov Union collapse. rethink role of state Poor targeting/impr oving Resources lacking y

27 Vietnam Inter- vention Challenges add- ressed ObjectiveIndica tors of progress/succe ss Cover age/cost/index ObstaclesShortcomingsEC Cash transfers to poor families w school children From pov red for spec groups to universal. Large program me. Compens ate for user fees Social cohesion Qual of servic es. Health insurance 60% cov. Formal insured; not informal Coverage & distribution of benefits; education outcomes. Graduation Social insurance for informal sector Household based cap Poverty line issue. Fiscal space. Sustain. depende ncy Non conditional Y

28 Recognise & seizing SP magic moments Recognise drivers of change Analyse and address group interests Mobilise beneficiaries, stakeholders, overcome political resistance Build strategic alliances for national consensus towards a social compact Be ready for expansion, systematisation and universalisation Undertake analytical and evidence research Prepare sound programme/policy incl bencmarch, M&E Examine fiscal space and address economic and tax performance Create shifts in philosophies, principles Use international debates/norms/fashions Look at obstacles Address affordability of social protection as a political issue (political will) Address governance issues Deal with populist pressures

29 Resources – reading list Bob Deacon, 2009, Middle Class Buy-in: Is it too Late? Global Social Policy, Volume 9 (1): 18 SAGE – Apr 1, 2009 Sam Hickey, 2006, The Politics of What Works in Reducing Chronic Poverty. A synthesis report for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Netherlands. Institute of Development Policy and Management, School of Environment and Development, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UNITED KINGDOM. CPRC Working Paper 91. International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC), 2o12, Bolsa Família: A Summary of Its Impacts. One Pager No 137. April 2012 Gabriele Koehler, 2011, The challenges of Delivering as One: Overcoming fragmentation and moving towards policy coherence. ILO Working Paper No. 100. - Richard Sandbrook, Marc Edelman, Patrick Heller, Judith Teichman, 2007. Social democracy in the global periphery: origins, challenges, prospects. Cambridge university Press Kurt Weyland, 2007. Bounded Rationality and Policy Diffusion. Princeton University Press

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