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Performance Measurement for Social Protection Franziska Gassmann Bangkok, June 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Performance Measurement for Social Protection Franziska Gassmann Bangkok, June 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Performance Measurement for Social Protection Franziska Gassmann Bangkok, June 2012

2 Objectives Understand the importance of performance measurement as an essential tool for social protection governance. What is performance measurement? Where is it applied/can it be applied? Understand the basic principles underlying performance measurements in relation to social protection by discussing the type and characteristics of indicators and related issues of data collection and data quality. Link performance measurement to the policy making process and the dialogue with partner countries. Understand how to select indicators and set targets for EC programme management.

3 Social Protection Defined as public interventions to support poor and vulnerable households and individuals with the objectives to Smooth consumption Provide support during difficult times Reduce poverty and inequality Stimulate economic development The focus is on non-contributory programs financed from general government revenues, such as Cash transfers Subsidized goods and services Direct food support Public work programmes Social services Residential care provision

4 Outline Relevance of performance measurement for social protection Indicators for performance measurement Different types of indicators The characteristics of good indicators Performance indicators for social protection policies Measuring poverty Data requirements Wrap up

5 Performance measurement… …monitors at a programme level the cost and quality of services and outcomes for clients in order to account for public expenditures …is a tool for controlling and managing resources …requires the definition of outcome objectives for policies and programmes …provides regular and systematic information whether a program, policy or development strategy is implemented as planned, is achieving its objectives and whether and how it can be improved …moves the focus from inputs/outputs to outcomes and results

6 Why focus on outcomes? (EC Guidelines 2009) Results matter Encourage evidence-based policy making Protect political space of beneficiary countries Promote domestic accountability Stimulate demand for high quality data

7 Performance measurement for social protection Non-contributory social protection policies are financed from general government revenues Spending on social protection is heavily scrutinized and subject to constant pressure It is vital for the government to prove that public spending on social protection achieves its objectives effectively and efficiently The systematic and regular monitoring and evaluation of social protection policies is therefore crucial for any national government accountable to the public.

8 Regular performance measurement is especially important for social protection Social protection policies are developed at central government level, but service delivery takes place at local level Social programs rely on implementing agents The poor often live in remote areas or socially isolated surroundings Market forces are less prevalent in social service delivery

9 Guidelines for measuring progress towards intended outcomes in social protection Use information that is already available Monitor the extent to which social protection systems are pro-poor Agree on a common set of indicators Invest in building national capacity (EC, 2003) Performance indicators measuring achievements of objectives should be coherent with national and sector policies Coherence with MDGs A programme ensuring the quality of the indicators should be in place (EC, 2009)

10 Types of indicators

11 A good indicator is… (World Bank, 2004) A direct and clear measure of progress (specific) Varies across areas, groups and over time Sensitive to changes in policies Not easy to manipulate or blown off by unrelated developments Relevant for policy making Can be tracked in a cost-effective way (available) Consistent with policy-making cycle Easy to understand Reliable Consistent with data availability and data collection capacity

12 …and supported by intelligent benchmarks (Cichon, 2004) Objective-based benchmarks Time-based benchmarks Comparative national benchmarks Comparative international benchmarks

13 Two dimensions of social protection performance Horizontal efficiency: Effectiveness of the programme in reaching the target group Under-coverage (exclusion) reduces horizontal efficiency Vertical efficiency: Efficiency of the programme in reaching the target group Inclusion errors reduce vertical efficiency

14 Targeting efficiency – evaluation matrix Target householdNon-target household Household receives transfer Success Inclusion error Type II error Household does not receive transfer Exclusion error Type I error Success

15 Measuring exclusion and inclusion errors Exclusion error (under-coverage) = Number of poor w/o benefit Number of all poor Inclusion error = Number of non-poor with benefit Number of beneficiaries Leakage = Total amount of benefits received by non-poor Total amount of benefits paid

16 Distributional analysis – example

17 Measuring targeting effectiveness Share of transfers going to the poor = % of transfers received by poor % of poor in total population Example: Poor are 40% of the total population Benefits received by the poor = 20% Share received by the poor = 20/40 = 0.5 Interpretation: Value = 1: targeting is neutral Value < 1: targeting is regressive Value > 1: targeting is progressive

18 Measuring adequacy Share of benefits in total household income (consumption) = Benefit value Household income Change in poverty rates before and after transfer Absolute change = change in percentage points Relative change = change as % of pre-transfer poverty

19 Measuring Poverty (a very short intro to…) Why measure poverty? Assess living standard of population, identify the poor Identify needs/areas for policy support Evaluate effectiveness of national poverty-reduction and redistribution policies Assess impact and performance of development aid What do we need (besides data…)? Concept Indicators Measures Analysis and interpretation

20 Conceptualizing poverty, cq well- being Welfarist approach: Individual utility determines well-being (Lack of) well-being expressed in the level of income, consumption, assets, etc. Monetary measures Non-welfarist point of view: Other aspects determine well-being, such as ownership of commodities, fulfillment of basic needs, access to basic services, being socially included…. Lack of capabilities to function

21 Most common approaches Monetary poverty (income, consumption, expenditure, assets, …) Capability approach (coined by A. Sen) Social exclusion (think EU) Vulnerability (origin in disaster-risk-reduction) Monetary poverty: one-dimensional (although, implicitly multi- dimensional) Other approaches: multi-dimensional Monetary poverty: Still most common approach used for policy evaluation and poverty assessments

22 Poor Each approach has different perspective on what constitutes a good life Each requires methodological assumptions Each has different policy implications MA: ensuring higher income solves problem CA: wider range of action needed (social provision of goods, improved allocation within family, efficient use of goods to achieve outcomes) SE: relative aspect important; just raising the level does not do the trick; redistribute policies

23 In order to measure poverty, we need… Welfare indicator What indicator is best suited to determine the living standard of a household or individual in a given society? What indicator allows ranking households from poorest to richest? Different welfare concepts imply different indicators, and my identify different groups of poor Define a cut-off threshold, cq. poverty line Absolute versus relative poverty What constitutes a minimum living standard?

24 Proportion of health deprived children by income quintile, Vietnam 2006

25 Relative vs. absolute Relative poverty line Set as a share of average or median income or expenditures Moving concept; there will always remain a class of poor people Closely linked with income distribution Examples: EU social indicator (60% of median income) Absolute poverty line Based on minimum consumption basket (food plus?) Survey-based or derived from other standards (e.g. national legislation, WHO) Examples: 1$ per day line, national poverty lines

26 Example: Poverty in Country X

27 How to determine the minimum living standard? In monetary terms: Objectively defined minimum, e.g. based on a basket of goods and services – absolute level As a percentage of the average living standard – relative level In non-monetary terms: Minimum years of schooling Access to primary health care Possession of x household appliances Having one hot meal per day …

28 Examples of poverty lines International absolute poverty lines: 1.25 USD PPP per capita per day Useful for international comparison, but not necessarily for national policy making International relative poverty lines: 60% of median income per adult equivalent World Bank methodology based on actual consumption for national poverty lines: Extreme poverty: costs to obtain a minimum food basket Absolute poverty: Minimum food basket plus allowance for non-food goods and services Subjective poverty lines Derived from minimum income question Frequently higher than objective poverty lines Guaranteed minimum income (budget based)

29 y n z HC PG Poverty measures q

30 The 3 most common poverty indicators n=total population; q=poor; y i =welfare level; z=poverty line Poverty incidence (headcount) P 0 = q/n =number of poor total population Poverty gap = average gap as a percentage of the poverty line P 1 = 1/n q [(z – y i ) / z]; non-poor: gap is zero! Poverty severity = weighted average gap P 2 = 1/n q [(z – y i ) / z] 2 INDEX!

31 Example: Kyrgyz Republic 2005 Source: WB (2010) Poverty indicators by region (absolute poverty line) Total country: 43.1% 10.5% 3.6

32 Scorecard Kyrgyz Republic (WB, 2009)

33 Data requirements – Types of data Administrative data Provide information on inputs and outputs Collected by line ministries or special agencies Less suitable for analysis of policy outcomes Household survey data Representative sample of population Essential for poverty analysis Essential for assessing policy outcomes Population census Basic information on all inhabitants (limited indicators) Very costly, at most every 10 years Needed for poverty maps Usually not suitable for assessing policy outcomes

34 Data requirements – household surveys Essential for analysis of policy outcomes Availability improved considerably over the past decade Many variations, but not all equally suitable HBS, LSMS, MICS, DHS, etc. Have their own shortcomings Reliability of information (e.g. income from transfers) Questionnaires not always in line with latest policies Target groups cannot always be identified (e.g. disabled, war veterans) How frequent should they be available? No general rule At least every 2-3 years, if financially affordable

35 Data requirements – qualitative data Provides information not provided in surveys Subjective dimensions of well-being Intra-household inequality Barriers to access (benefits, services) Cultural, political or social factors that determine policy outcomes and impacts In-depth interviews, focus group discussions To inform survey design or to validate findings from survey

36 Wrap up Performance measurement ensures the accountability of the policy maker and the transparency of the decisions taken Availability and measurement of performance indicators is essential for social protection policy making Ensure regular and systematic collection of reliable information Analyse the collected information from various perspectives Data requirements need to be carefully assessed as resources are often scarce Better have a limited set of core indicators which are regularly collected and analysed Performance measurement is part of the policy process and the interpretation of indicators needs to be placed in the political and economic context

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