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Institut für Schallforschung, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften Wohllebengasse 12-14, A-1040 Wien, Austria Tel: +43 1/4277-29503 Fax: +43 1/4277-9295.

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Presentation on theme: "Institut für Schallforschung, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften Wohllebengasse 12-14, A-1040 Wien, Austria Tel: +43 1/4277-29503 Fax: +43 1/4277-9295."— Presentation transcript:

1 Institut für Schallforschung, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften Wohllebengasse 12-14, A-1040 Wien, Austria Tel: +43 1/ Fax: +43 1/ Acoustics Research Institute Austrian Academy of Sciences Secondary Stress: A Speaker-Specific Characteristic? Sylvia Moosmüller Secondary Stress: A Speaker-Specific Characteristic? Sylvia Moosmüller

2 Vowels in Standard Austrian German Introducation: Theoretical Framework Socio-pragmatic foundation of phonology and phonetics The phonological system Standard Austrian German Methods and Data Interpretation of Formant Frequencies Vowel Inventory and Features Coarticulation Vowel Variability Speaker-specific traits

3 Data Six speakers of Standard Austrian German Two speaking tasks (reading, spontaneous) ~ vowels were analysed F1, F2, F3, F0, duration

4 Method Sampling frequency: Hz, 16 Bit LPC 26 coefficients, pre-emphasis ms gliding Hanning window Overlap: 95% 20 to 150 measurement points per vowel, depending on the duration

5 Method Spectrogram of the item Kies (gravel). Speaker sp012, reading sentences. Bottom panel: fundamental frequency, Next panel from bottom: waveform window, Third panel from bottom: spectrogram window, Left upper panel: waveform zoom window, rigth upper panel: amplitude spectrum window.

6 Vowels in Standard Austrian German Vowel system consists of 13 vowels on 5 constriction locations: Pre-palatal:/i, ç, y, Y/ Palatal:/e, E, ë, ê/ Velar:/u, ï/ Upper-pharyngeal:/o, O/ Lower-pharyngeal:/A/ These vowels are additionally distinguished by constriction degree (or lip aperture) and lip protrusion.

7 Acoustic Correlates of Primary Stress in German Duration (Goldbeck & Sendlmeier 1988, Jessen et al. 1995, Mengel 1997, Dogil & Williams 1999) Spectral tilt (Claßen et al. 1998) Vowel quality (Jessen et al. 1995)

8 Difference between primary stressed and unstressed vowels Mean values of the statistically significant differences (in %) between stressed and unstressed vowels, broken for F1, F2, and F3, pooled over all speakers and speaking tasks. Legend: c = [+constricted], uc = [-constricted]

9 Secondary Stress No acoustic correlates found sofar for secondary stress (Mengel 2000, Kleber & Klipphahn 2006) Secondary Stress is a perceptual phenomenon (Mengel 2000, Schreuder 2006)

10 Secondary Stress Secondary stress in compounds e.g.: Fi'nanzmi]nister(finance minister) 'Bundes]kanzler(chancellor) Be'suchs]recht(visiting rights) Be'suchs]tage(visiting days) 'Jugend]amt(youth welfare office) In the spontaneous speech of the data at issue, approximately 25% of all nouns were compounds.

11 The vowel /A/ Schematized change in vowel quality: F1 primary stress > F1 secondary stress > F1 unstressed F2 primary stress < F2 secondary stress < F2 unstressed F3 primary stress < F3 secondary stress < F3 unstressed

12 The vowel /A/ F1 F2 F3 sp180sp129sp082sp012sp126 sp127 Statistically significant changes of F1, F2, and F3 (p < 0.05) of the vowel /A/ dependent on stress, sentence reading task. Within each column denoting the speakers, the left-most crossbar denotes the relative formant frequency position of primary stressed vowels, the middle crossbar the one of secondary stressed vowels, and the rightmost crossbar the one of unstressed vowels.

13 The vowel /i/ Schematized change in vowel quality: F1 primary stress < F1 secondary stress < F1 unstressed F2 primary stress > F2 secondary stress > F2 unstressed F3 primary stress > F3 secondary stress > F3 unstressed

14 The vowel /i/ F1 F2 F3 sp180sp129sp082sp012sp126 sp127 Statistically significant changes of F1, F2, and F3 (p < 0.05) of the vowel /A/ dependent on stress, sentence reading task. Within each column denoting the speakers, the left-most crossbar denotes the relative formant frequency position of primary stressed vowels, the middle crossbar the one of secondary stressed vowels, and the rightmost crossbar the one of unstressed vowels.

15 The vowel /ç/ Schematized change in vowel quality: F1 primary stress < F1 secondary stress < F1 unstressed F2 primary stress > F2 secondary stress > F2 unstressed F3 primary stress > F3 secondary stress > F3 unstressed

16 The vowel / ç / F1 F2 F3 sp180sp129sp082sp012sp126 sp127 Statistically significant changes of F1, F2, and F3 (p < 0.05) of the vowel /A/ dependent on stress, sentence reading task. Within each column denoting the speakers, the left-most crossbar denotes the relative formant frequency position of primary stressed vowels, the middle crossbar the one of secondary stressed vowels, and the rightmost crossbar the one of unstressed vowels.

17 The vowel /E/ Schematized change in vowel quality: F1 primary stress > F1 secondary stress > F1 unstressed F2 primary stress > F2 secondary stress > F2 unstressed F3 primary stress > F3 secondary stress > F3 unstressed

18 The vowel /E/ F1 F2 F3 sp180sp129sp082sp012sp126 sp127 Statistically significant changes of F1, F2, and F3 (p < 0.05) of the vowel /A/ dependent on stress, sentence reading task. Within each column denoting the speakers, the left-most crossbar denotes the relative formant frequency position of primary stressed vowels, the middle crossbar the one of secondary stressed vowels, and the rightmost crossbar the one of unstressed vowels.

19 Conclusion High variability among the speakers (see also Kleber & Klipphahn 2006) Difference between primary stressed position and unstressed position codified Secondary stress can be expressed in different ways: in the same way as the primary stressed vowel in the same way as unstressed vowel not at all Depends on speaker and speaking task.

20 References Claßen, Kathrin, Grzegorz Dogil, Michael Jessen, Krzysztof Marasek & Wolfgang Wokurek Stimmqualität und Wortbetonung im Deutschen. Linguistische Berichte 174, Dogil Grzegorz & Briony Williams "The phonetic manifestation of word stress." In: Harry van der Hulst (ed.), Word Prosodic Systems in the Languages of Europe. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, Goldbeck, Thomas. P. & Walter F. Sendlmeier "Wechselbeziehung zwischen Satzmodalität und Akzentuierung in satzfinaler Position bei der Realisierung von Intonationskonturen." In: Hans Altmann (ed.), Intonationsforschungen. Tübingen: Niemeyer, Jessen, Michael, Krzystof Marasek, Katrin Schneider & Kathrin Claßen Acoustic Correlates of Word Stress and the tense/lax Opposition in the Vowel System of German. Proceedings of the ICPhS 95. Stockholm. Vol 4, Kleber, Felicitas & Nadine Klipphahn "An acoustic investigation of secondary stress in German." Arbeitsberichte des Instituts für Phonetik und digitale Sprachverarbeitung der Universität Kiel, AIPUK 37, Mengel, Andreas "Das akustische Korrelat des deutschen Wortakzents." Vortrag gehalten anläßlich der Konferenz für Elektronische Sprachsignalverarbeitung (ESSV 1997) in Cottbus. Mengel, Andreas Deutscher Wortakzent. Symbole, Signale. Norderstedt: Books on Demand GmbH. Schreuder, Maartje Prosodic Processes in Language and Music. PhD Dissertation, Groningen Dissertations in Linguistics (GRODIL) 60, University of Groningen THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION


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