9 Who are the Hutus & Tutsis The Hutus and Tutsis are two groups of people that settled in present day Rwanda close to two-thousand years ago.Over time they worked together and united.Developed a single language (Kinyarwanda)One set of religious and philosophical beliefs.
10 Long ago, Rwanda and Burundi were one nation Long ago, Rwanda and Burundi were one nation. The Hutu and Tutsi lived here.
11 A Division BeginsThe Tutsi were “rich in cattle”. They were the elite and ruling class.The Hutu had less livestock and less power.In the 18th century, when Rwanda emerged as a powerful and populous nation, its rulers began to measure their power in the number of their cattle.
12 MarriageAlthough there were some families that intermarried, most Hutus married Hutus and most Tutsis married Tutsis.This impacted genetics and the way Hutus and Tutsis began to look.
13 Physical AppearanceBecause the Hutus and Tutsis did not usually intermarry, their offspring began to develop similarities in their features.The Tutsis were often very tall, thin, with narrow features, and fair skin.The Hutus were often shorter, stronger, with broader features, and darker skin.
14 Belgium Brings Further Division Belgium decided to use the class system (that had already been put into place) to their advantage.The Belgians favored the Tutsis and gave them privileges and western-style education.
15 Why did the Belgians do this? The Belgians did this because they could control Rwanda easier this way.The Belgians also favored the Tutsis because they appeared more European in their tall, slender features. They discriminated the Hutus because they appeared less European.
16 Identification CardsAfter creating laws that gave special privileges to the how could the be sure who was a Tutsi and who was a Hutu? Tutsi, the Belgians ran into a problem…Physical characteristics identified some, but not all.The solution: Have every single citizen register and carry an identification card.
17 What if you had no proof?If you could not give proof of your ancestry, the Belgians would simply measure your height and other features.If you appeared more European, they listed you has a Tutsi.If your features were taller, darker, stronger, etc. they listed you has a Hutu.
18 How do you think the Hutus felt about this How do you think the Hutus felt about this? How do you think the Tutsis felt about this?
25 A Day that will Live in Infamy April 6, 1994 – President Habyarimana and the president of Burundi, Cyprien Ntaryamira, are shot down in a plane and killed.No one knows who shot down the president’s plane. There are theories that the Hutus did this and there are theories that the Tutsis did this.That night… the genocide begins.
32 Where was the help?While the genocide was going on, the world sat back and watched.No troops or aide was sent by the Americans or any other country.The victims were left screaming for help, but no one came.
33 An End to the GenocideAs soon as it became apparent to the Hutus that the Tutsis were victorious, close to 2 million fled to the Democratic Republic of CongoOn July 19 a new multi-ethnic government was formed, promising all refugees a safe return to Rwanda.
34 A New GovernmentOn July 19 a new multi-ethnic government was formed, promising all refugees a safe return to Rwanda.
35 What does the future hold for Rwanda? Only time will tell.
36 Works Cited Human Rights Watch Publications “Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda”BBC News“Rwanda: How a Genocide Happened”PBS Frontline“Timeline Rwanda: A Chronology of Key Events”
37 This is a picture from the movie Hotel Rwanda This is a picture from the movie Hotel Rwanda. The man on the right, plays a Hutu character. The woman on the left, plays a Tutsi character.
38 PARMEHUTUThe Party for the Emancipation of the Hutus is formed in It is called Parmehutu.Hutus rebelled against the Belgian colonial power and the Tutsi elite.150,000 Tutsis flee to Burundi (which at the time was part of Rwanda).
39 Igniting ViolenceA well-known Hutu leader, Dr. Leon Mugesera appeals to the Hutus to send the Tutsis “back to Ethiopia” via the rivers.Other Hutus said that they needed to clean up the “filth” and kill the Tutsi “cockroaches.”
40 The U.N. LeavesThe U.N. is forced to leave for a variety of reasons, including increased violence in Rwanda and world tensions following a crisis that occurred in Somalia.
41 Negotiations – Aug. 1993Following months of negotiations, President Habyarimana (a Hutu President) and the RPF sign a peace accord that calls for a return of Tutsi refugees.2,500 United Nations troops are deployed to Kigali to oversee the peace accord.
42 Will there be peace?Despite a peace accord, the Rwandan president stalls in created a unified government in which the power is shared.At the same time, training of militias and violence intensifies.An extremist radio station, Radio Mille Collines, begins to warn: “it is almost time for us to cut down the tall trees.” This was code for, “it is almost time to kill all of the Tutsis.”
43 WARNING!Human rights groups warn the international community of an impending genocide.In March of 1994, the human rights groups are forced to flee Rwanda due to the impending calamity. Only the Red Cross stays behind.
44 Justice for GenocideThe new government of Rwanda continues to seek justice for the innocent murder of close to a million people.Many people have been tried in court and found guilty of war crimes.500 have been put to death for their war crimes, and another 100,000 are still in prison!!!