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Ancient India – Geography & Early Civilizations

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient India – Geography & Early Civilizations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient India – Geography & Early Civilizations

2 Importance of Geography
Natural/Physical Barriers of Protection Mountain ranges in Northern India – Himalayas and Hindu Kush Khyber Pass provided entrance routes for people to migrate into the Indian subcontinent. India Ocean isolated India by water.

3 Geographical (Natural) Protection

4 Rivers Ganges and Indus River provided fertile farmland and ready supply of water. Monsoons came from India Ocean and provided rainfall.

5 India’s River Valleys

6 Early Indus River Valley Civilizations
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro civilizations Discovered by archeologists in the 19th century, settled in 2500 BCE in the Indus River Valley (modern day Pakistan) Cities were 350 miles apart from each other, but they shared many common characteristics.

7 Sophisticated urban planning – city streets, pools, sewer system & plumbing
Buildings made of mud brick Controlled the Indus River through levees and dykes for crops. Used irrigation – grew many crops such as wheat, barley, and rice. Collapsed around 1500 BCE

8 Aryans Invasion Invaded the Indian Subcontinent in 1500 BCE, possibly through the Khyber Pass. Easily took over due to advanced military technology, the chariot. Asserted their dominance early through military.

9 Culture and Language Politically unstable civilization – Divided into smaller kingdoms. Ruled by local chiefs who were military in nature. Great Cultural influence Sanskrit: Aryan language, becomes a written language. Poems written in books called Vedas.

10 Social System Caste System: social class system based on heredity People were born into the class of their birth parents and could not change their caste or class through any means. Brahman, kshatriyas, vaisyas, pariahs. Caste system is found in Hinduism.

11 Mauryan Empire Beginnings
Established by King Maurya in India in 321 BCE. Believed war would give him fame, he amassed a huge army to conquer India.

12 King Ashoka Grandson of Maurya, took power of Mauryan Empire in 268 until 232. Early years of rule, very militaristic. Estimated killing at least 100,000 people. Experience a life change that changed his life and kingdom – converts to Buddhism.

13 Follows Buddhist (Siddhartha’s) teachings.
Spreads Buddhism, constructs hospitals, veterinary clinics, builds roads. Rule brought peace and prosperity to India.

14 Gupta Empire Existed from 320 CE to 550 CE in India
Empire only lasted for 200 years or so, but it was considered India’s Golden Age

15 Golden Age: Mathematics (concept of zero)
Medical advancements (setting of bones) Astronomy (concept of round earth) New textiles and literature

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