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Ancient and Egyptian Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient and Egyptian Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient and Egyptian Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp

2 Topics Mesopotamia Mesopotamia Sumer Sumer Babylon Babylon Ancient Israel Ancient Israel Crete Crete Mycenae Mycenae

3 Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia Mesopotamia Mesopotamia Coexists with same time period as the Egyptians Coexists with same time period as the Egyptians Centered around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers Centered around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers Modern day Iraq Modern day Iraq Signs of civilization begin to appear around 4500 B.C. Signs of civilization begin to appear around 4500 B.C. Peak of civilization is around 3300 B.C. Peak of civilization is around 3300 B.C.

4 Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia - Sumer Sumer Sumer Great kingdom located in Mesopotamia Great kingdom located in Mesopotamia Building materials were scarce Building materials were scarce Timber was completely absent and stone was very scarce Timber was completely absent and stone was very scarce Mud was used to create bricks Mud was used to create bricks Highly soluble in water Highly soluble in water Most structures have been destroyed due to rain and time Most structures have been destroyed due to rain and time

5 Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia - Sumer Sumer Sumer Architectural characteristics include: Architectural characteristics include: Heavy walls made of mud bricks Heavy walls made of mud bricks Great massings of earth Great massings of earth Tombs were very rare Tombs were very rare Temples of interest: Temples of interest: Temple VIII at Eridu Temple VIII at Eridu White Temple at Uruk White Temple at Uruk

6 Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia - Sumer Sumer Sumer Temple VIII at Eridu Temple VIII at Eridu Ancient site near Ur Ancient site near Ur Thick walls of mud bricks Thick walls of mud bricks Set atop a primitive mud- brick platform Set atop a primitive mud- brick platform Featured stairs leading up to an entrance on the long side of the temple Featured stairs leading up to an entrance on the long side of the temple Photo: Sullivan

7 Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia - Sumer Sumer Sumer White Temple at Uruk White Temple at Uruk 3500 – 3000 B.C. 3500 – 3000 B.C. Placed upon a huge mass of earth called a ziggurat Placed upon a huge mass of earth called a ziggurat Photo: Sullivan

8 Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia - Babylon Babylon Babylon Neo-Babylonian Revival Neo-Babylonian Revival Culture was revived in 612 B.C. Culture was revived in 612 B.C. Many new temples and palaces were built Many new temples and palaces were built Thick walls surrounded the city with a distance of some 11 miles Thick walls surrounded the city with a distance of some 11 miles Key locations: Key locations: Ishtar Gate Ishtar Gate Tower of Babel Tower of Babel Palace of Nebuchadnezzar Palace of Nebuchadnezzar

9 Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia – Babylon Babylon Babylon Ishtar Gate Ishtar Gate Most impressive remnant of the great city Most impressive remnant of the great city Dominated the wide processional avenue and led to the inner city Dominated the wide processional avenue and led to the inner city Partly reconstructed in the State Museum, Berlin, Germany Partly reconstructed in the State Museum, Berlin, Germany Photo: Sullivan

10 Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia – Babylon Tower of Babel Tower of Babel Most famous of all the ziggurats of ancient Mesopotamia Most famous of all the ziggurats of ancient Mesopotamia Has been restored many times throughout the centuries Has been restored many times throughout the centuries No one really knows how it actually looked No one really knows how it actually looked Photo: Sullivan

11 Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia - Babylon Babylon Babylon Palace of Nebuchadnezzar Palace of Nebuchadnezzar The most grandiose palace in Babylon The most grandiose palace in Babylon Featured the Hanging Gardens Featured the Hanging Gardens One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World Approximately 900 by 600 ft. in size Approximately 900 by 600 ft. in size Has been praised by many historians for its many splendid features Has been praised by many historians for its many splendid features

12 Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia - Babylon Photo: Sullivan

13 Ancient Near East: Ancient Israel Ancient Israel Ancient Israel King Solomon’s Temple King Solomon’s Temple Built around the 10 th century B.C. Built around the 10 th century B.C. Located atop Mt. Moriah in Jerusalem Located atop Mt. Moriah in Jerusalem Rectangular structure surrounded by open courtyards Rectangular structure surrounded by open courtyards Rebuilt two times due to invaders Rebuilt two times due to invaders The third temple is associated with the Christian New Testament The third temple is associated with the Christian New Testament Destroyed in A.D. 70 by the Romans Destroyed in A.D. 70 by the Romans

14 Ancient Near East: Ancient Israel Photo: Sullivan

15 Ancient Near East: Ancient Israel Ancient Israel Ancient Israel Wailing Wall in Jerusalem is believed to be the last remnants of Solomon’s third temple Wailing Wall in Jerusalem is believed to be the last remnants of Solomon’s third temple Photo: Sullivan

16 Ancient Near East: Crete Crete Crete Key locations: Key locations: City of Troy City of Troy Was thought to be a mythical location until the 1870’s A.D. Was thought to be a mythical location until the 1870’s A.D. Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann Palace at Knossos Palace at Knossos c. 1700 – 1400 B.C. c. 1700 – 1400 B.C. Possibly built for King Midas Possibly built for King Midas Only the ground floor has survived the centuries Only the ground floor has survived the centuries

17 Ancient Near East: Crete Photo: Sullivan

18 Ancient Near East: Crete Photo: Sullivan

19 Ancient Near East: Mycenae Mycenae Mycenae Modern day Greece Modern day Greece A great society of warriors A great society of warriors More interested architecturally in citadels rather than pleasure palaces More interested architecturally in citadels rather than pleasure palaces Recognized the importance of geometry and proportions in architecture Recognized the importance of geometry and proportions in architecture

20 Ancient Near East: Mycenae Mycenae Mycenae Two important structures: Two important structures: Citadel at Tyrins Citadel at Tyrins Best preserved citadel of Mycenae Best preserved citadel of Mycenae Up to 36 ft. thick walls Up to 36 ft. thick walls Lined with galleries that featured massive corbelled ceilings Lined with galleries that featured massive corbelled ceilings Treasury of Atreus Treasury of Atreus Large dome shaped tomb dating back to 1300 B.C. Large dome shaped tomb dating back to 1300 B.C. Photo: Sullivan

21 Ancient Near East: Mycenae Photo: Sullivan

22 Ancient Near East: Mycenae Photo: Sullivan

23 References Sullivan, Mary; http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/ Sullivan, Mary; http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/ http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html Trachtenburg/Hyman; Architecture: From Prehistory to Postmodernity Trachtenburg/Hyman; Architecture: From Prehistory to Postmodernity Wodehouse/Moffett; A History of Western Architecture Wodehouse/Moffett; A History of Western Architecture

24 Ancient and Egyptian Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp


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