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1 Green Economy and Green Jobs: Myth or Reality? Sustainable development A challenge for European research Brussels, 26-28 May 2009 International Labour.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Green Economy and Green Jobs: Myth or Reality? Sustainable development A challenge for European research Brussels, 26-28 May 2009 International Labour."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Green Economy and Green Jobs: Myth or Reality? Sustainable development A challenge for European research Brussels, May 2009 International Labour Organization Policy Integration Department David Kucera

2 2 Green Economy and Green Jobs lOverview of presentation èDefining the problem èMain findings of four high-quality studies èConclusion: GE/GJ a myth or reality?

3 3 Green Economy and Green Jobs lDefining the problem èConsider two paths: èPath A: More green èPath B: Less green uPath B is often referred to as the business as usual scenario

4 4 Green Economy and Green Jobs lDefining the problem èWhen the total number of jobs resulting from Path A are greater than from Path B, let us call GE/GJ a reality èWhen the total number of jobs resulting from Path A are less than from Path B, let us call GE/GJ a myth

5 5 Green Economy and Green Jobs lDefining the problem èTotal number of jobs from Path A and B result from the sum of: è1. Direct jobs: first round of job changes resulting from changing outputs in target industries è2. Indirect jobs: subsequent job changes resulting from changing inputs required to accommodate 1 è3. Income induced jobs: additional jobs created by changes in household incomes and expenditures resulting from 1 and 2

6 6 Green Economy and Green Jobs lFour high-quality studies èU.S.: Green recovery – Center for American Progress and Political Economy Research Institute (2008) èEU 27: Links between the environment, economy and jobs – GHK Consulting (2007)

7 7 Green Economy and Green Jobs lFour high-quality studies èGermany: Renewable energy: Employment effects – German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (2006) èUK: Building a low-carbon economy – Committee on Climate Change (2008)

8 8 Green Economy and Green Jobs lU.S., green recovery program èUses input-output analysis to estimate effects of a $100 billion green recovery program è$40 billion: building retrofitting è$20 billion: mass transit/freight rail è$10 billion each: smart grid, wind power, solar power and advanced biofuels

9 9 Green Economy and Green Jobs lU.S., green recovery program èAn estimated 2 million total jobs would be created èCompared to 1.7 million total jobs created through spending on household consumption èCompared to 542,000 total jobs created through spending on the oil industry

10 10 Green Economy and Green Jobs lU.S., main finding èGE/GJ a reality for the US èWhy more jobs through a green recovery? u Greater domestic content u Higher avg. labour intensity of production

11 11 Green Economy and Green Jobs lEU 27, two main analyses èUses input-output analysis for individual EU 27 countries to estimate the number of environment related jobs as of 2000 èPolicy scenarios based on greener substitutions and reductions

12 12 Green Economy and Green Jobs lEU 27, existing environment related jobs èCore definition: organic farming, sustainable forestry, renewable energy, water supply and environment-related tourism è8.67 million total jobs èEquivalent to 6% of total jobs in EU 27

13 13 Green Economy and Green Jobs lEU 27, policy scenarios

14 14 Green Economy and Green Jobs lEU 27, policy scenarios

15 15 Green Economy and Green Jobs lEU 27, main finding GE/GJ a reality for the EU 27

16 16 Green Economy and Green Jobs lGermany, two main analyses èUses input-output analysis to estimate the number of jobs in renewable energy industry in Germany in 2004 Uses a macroeconomic model to estimate employment effects by 2020 of two paths using more and less renewable energy

17 17 Green Economy and Green Jobs Germany, existing jobs in renewable energy èAn estimated 157,000 jobs in the renewable energy industry Direct jobs breakdown: 41% in wind energy 36% in biomass 16% in solar energy 6% in hydropower u1% in geothermal energy

18 18 Green Economy and Green Jobs lGermany, employment effects by 2020 using macro model èMore renewable energy: 12.7% by 2020 èLess renewable energy: 8.3% by 2020 The model accounts for: uLabour-displacing technical change Budget effects depending on relative costs of renewable and non-renewable energy uForeign trade effects

19 19 Green Economy and Green Jobs lGermany, employment effects by 2020 using macro model

20 20 Green Economy and Green Jobs lGermany, main finding èGE/GJ a reality for the renewable energy industry in Germany, both now and in the future èHowever, estimated gains small relative to total employment (37.8 mill., 2007) as well as unemployment in Germany(3.6 mill.)

21 21 Green Economy and Green Jobs UK, CO 2 emissions and GDP èUses three models to estimate the effects on GDP of reducing CO 2 emissions 30% by by 2020 è % lower GDP in 2020 èIf annual avg. GDP growth is 2%, this is % of one years growth over a twelve-year period

22 22 Green Economy and Green Jobs UK, CO 2 emissions and GDP èLower GDP may imply fewer jobs èDepends on compositional shift in industries by labour intensity èAs we have defined myth and reality, GE/GJ may therefore be a myth for UK

23 23 Green Economy and Green Jobs UK, CO 2 emissions and GDP èBut if so, is it a necessary myth? The Committee believes that this cost is affordable and accepts it is necessary if larger climate change costs and consequences are to be avoided.

24 24 Green Economy and Green Jobs lConclusion: GE/GJ a myth or reality? è3 of 4 high-quality studies find that GE/GJ a reality èI.e., greener paths mean more jobs èFor 2000, 6% of total jobs in EU 27 are environment related, by a conservative definition

25 25 Green Economy and Green Jobs lConclusion: GE/GJ a myth or reality? èStudy for UK finds that if even if GE/GJ is a myth, it a necessary myth to avoid larger climate change costs and consequences èImplication is that not all climate change costs are readily valued in money and GDP terms

26 26 Green Economy and Green Jobs Conclusion: Other important policy considerations Small changes in the total number of jobs mask a great deal of labour market churning uNeed for a just transition for workers in declining sectors èDecent work: Need to consider not just job quantity, not also job quality

27 27 Green Economy and Green Jobs Thank you


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