Presentation on theme: "From Six to Fifteen and Beyond"— Presentation transcript:
1 From Six to Fifteen and Beyond EU ENLARGEMENTFrom Six to Fifteen and BeyondDG Enlargement Information Unit
2 Treaty of Rome25 March, 1957His Majesty the King of the Belgians, the President of the Federal Republic of Germany, the President of the French Republic, the President of the Italian Republic, Her Royal Highness the Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands,resolved by pooling their resources to preserve and strengthen peace and liberty and calling upon the other peoples of Europe who share their ideal to join in their efforts,have decided to create a European Community.
10 Treaty of the European Union (TEU) Article 49 of the TEU: Any European State which respects the principles set out in Article 6(1) may apply to become a member of the Union.Article 6 of the TEU: The Union is founded on the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law, principles which are common to the Member States.
11 The Europe & Association Agreements Country Europe Europe OfficialAgreement signed Agreement came application forinto force EU MembershipBulgaria March 1993 February 1995 December 1995Czech Rep. October 1993 February 1995 January 1996Estonia June 1995 February 1998 November 1995Hungary December 1991 February 1994 March 1994Latvia June 1995 February 1998 October 1995Lithuania June 1995 February 1998 December 1995Poland December 1991 February 1994 April 1994Romania February 1993 February 1995 June 1995Slovakia October 1993 February 1995 June 1995Slovenia June 1996 February 1999 June 1996Country Association Association OfficialTurkey September 1963 December April 1987Malta December 1970 April July 1990Cyprus December 1972 June July 1990
12 The Copenhagen Criteria Political criteria The applicant country must have achieved stability of its institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities.Economic criteria It must have a functioning market economy, as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the EU.Criteria of the adoption of the acquis It must have the ability to take on the obligations related to of membership, including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union.
13 The OpinionsAn assessment against the Copenhagen criteria: a detailed description and analysis of the political and economic situation in each applicant country.An evaluation of its capacity to adopt and implement the acquis (that is, the rights and obligations deriving from the EU treaties and laws) in all areas of the Union’s activity.An indication of possible problems in taking on the acquis.A recommendation concerning the opening of negotiations.
14 Recommendations of the Commission 15 July 1997Based on the following conclusions:None of the candidates fully satisfy all the criteria at the present time;Nine countries satisfy the political conditions;Certain countries have made sufficient progress towards satisfying the economic conditions;The Commission considers that Hungary, Poland, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Cyprus could be in a position to satisfy all the conditions of membership in the medium-term.The Commission recommends the Council to open negotiations with these countries.
15 The New Europe: Architecture The European Union4 liberties: Free movement ofpersonsgoodsservicescaptialSingle MarketSingle CurrencyPolitical UnionEconomic & Social CohesionTradeEnvironmentCulturePolitical consultationFuture membershipEFTA CountriesCandidate CountriesEEA TreatyEurope and Association Agreements
17 The New Europe: Security Member of EU and NATOMember of EU but not NATOFuture EU Member also in NATOFuture EU Member & partner of NATONATO Members not in the EUNATO partners not in the EU
18 The New Europe: Schengen EU Member States in the Schengen areaEU Member States not in the Schengen areaCandidate CountriesCountries in the Schengen area, not EU Member States and not Candidate Countries
19 Luxembourg European Council Launch of the Enlargement process12-13 December 1997European Conference (12 March 1998):Subjects for discussion: fight against drugs and organised crime, CFSP issues, environmental protection, promoting competitive and regional cooperation10 Central and Eastern European Candidates,Cyprus(and Turkey)Opening of accession negotiations in six individual conferences on 31 March 1998The Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia and CyprusStrategy for Turkey: Full use of the 1963 Association Agreement, consolidation and deepening of the customs union, implementation of financial cooperation, approximation of laws and participation in certain community programmes and agencies. Regularly reviewed by the Association Council. Invitation to participate in the European Conference.
20 The European Conference The only forum where the candidate countries can meet with Member States to discuss issues with a cross-border dimension such as justice and home affairs – notably crime and drugs – environment, regional cooperation and Common Foreign and Security Policy.Since the aim of the Conference is to provide the overarching framework for the enlargement process, it is necessary to reserve participation in the Conference for Member States and candidate countries only.First meeting: London, 12 March 1998
21 Berlin European Council 24-25 March 1999The Presidency Conclusions declared that:In light of the outcome on Agenda 2000, the European Council wishes to send a message of reassurance to the countries negotiating for accession. Enlargement remains an historic priority for the European Union. The accession negotiations will continue each in accordance with its own rhythm and as rapidly as possible. It calls upon the Council and the Commission to ensure that the pace of the negotiations is maintained accordingly.
22 Main elements of Agenda 2000 In a single framework, the Commission outlines:The broad perspectives for the development of the European Union and its policies beyond the turn of the century (e.g. CAP and regional policies);The impact of enlargement on the Union as a whole;The future financial framework beyond 2000, taking account of the prospect of an enlarged Union.
23 Reinforced Pre-accession Strategy Accession PartnershipIncrease pre-accession aid ( ):- Phare (€ million per year);- Structural Funds (ISPA) (€ million per year);- Agricultural support (SAPARD) (€ 500 million per year).Opening of Community programmes and agencies for the applicant countries.Review mechanism
24 Accession Partnerships An Accession Partnership has been drawn up for each candidate country. This:Provides an assessment of the priority areas in which the candidate country needs to make progress in order to prepare for accession;Outlines the ways in which the Phare Programme will support such accession preparations;Mobilises all forms of EU support within a single framework for each country;Contains precise commitments on the part of the candidate countries relating in particular to democracy, macroeconomic stabilisation, industrial restructuring, nuclear safety and the adoption of the acquis.Is complemented by National Programmes for the Adoption of the Acquis (NPAA).
25 Berlin European Council 24-25 March 1999Expenditure for the three pre-accession instruments (Phare, the structural instrument and the agricultural instrument).The annual ceiling for the three sub-headings should remain at a constant level throughout the period and should not exceed:Pre-accession instruments (€ million 1999 prices)Pre-accession instruments 3, , ,120 3, , ,120Phare 1, , ,560 1, , ,560Structural 1, , ,040 1, , ,040Agricultural
26 Helsinki European Council 10-11 December 1999Impact on accessionThe European Council, meeting in Helsinki, decided in particular to:Launch official negotiations in February 2000 with Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Romania and Slovakia;Consider each applicant on its own merits during the negotiations. This principle will apply both to the opening and the conduct of negotiations;Allow applicant countries that have just started the negotiating process to catch up with the countries already in negotiations within a reasonable time, provided they have made sufficient progress with their preparations;Ensure that progress in negotiations goes hand in hand with progress in incorporating the acquis into legislation and implementing it in practice.
27 Nice European Council7-9 December 2000The European Council, meeting in Nice, focused on:Fresh impetus to the process;Institutional Reform for a Europe with 27 or more members;Concluding of a roadmap as main tool for enlargement;Maintaining principle of differentiation;Welcoming progress in implementing pre-accession strategy for Turkey.
28 Gothenburg European Council 15-16 June 2001The European Council, meeting in Gothenburg, reached the following conclusion, confirming the breakthroughs in the negotiations on enlargement:The enlargement process is irreversible;The roadmap is the framework for the successful completion of the enlargement negotiations;Completing negotiations by the end of 2002 for those candidate countries that are ready should be possible. The objective is that they should participate in the European Parliament elections of 2004 as members;Good progress has been made in implementing the pre-accession strategy for Turkey, including an enhanced political dialogue. However, in a number of areas such as human rights, further progress is needed.
29 Brussels European Council 24-25 October 2002“The historic process launched in Copenhagen in 1993 to overcome the divisions throughout our continent is about to bear fruit ….… the biggest ever enlargement of the Union is now within reach”.
30 Copenhagen European Council 12-13 December 2002“For the first time in history Europe will become one because unification is the free will of its people.… The deal that we have reached here in Copenhagen represents EU at its best: leadership, solidarity and determination”.R. Prodi
31 Accession negotiations: Launch The Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia and Cyprus (first group of countries, formerly known as ‘Luxembourg Group’): 31 March 1998.Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Romania and the Slovak Republic (second group of countries, formerly known as ‘Helsinki Group’): 15 February 2000.Turkey: The Helsinki European Council (December 1999) confirmed that Turkey is a candidate destined to join the Union on the basis of the same criteria as those applied to the other candidate countries.
32 Accession negotiations: Regular Reports Regular reports are adopted by the European Commission on progress by the candidate countries in meeting the EU’s membership criteria.Regular reports are produced on a yearly basis since 1998.Regular reports follow the same methodology as the Opinions.Regular reports use the same objective criteria as used in (the Copenhagen criteria).
33 Accession negotiations: Screening Screening = analytical examination of the Union's acquis, which precedes the negotiationsA multilateral exercise: the commission identifies and explains to all candidates the acquis applicable at the date of opening the negotiations with the candidates.A bilateral exercise: the commission assesses the state of implementation of the acquis by each candidate country and identifies gaps to be filled.A basis for the negotiation: the Commission establishes a "screening report" on each chapter and for each country, which will serve as a basis to launch the actual, technical negotiation process.An ongoing mechanism: it is used now to identify and explain elements of NEW legislation, that also need to be adopted by the candidates before they join.
34 Accession negotiations: Chapters 1. Free movement of goods2. Freedom of movement for persons3. Freedom to provide services4. Free movement of capital5. Company law6. Competition policy7. Agriculture8. Fisheries9. Transport policy10. Taxation11. Economic and monetary union12. Statistics13. Social policy and employment14. Energy15. Industrial policy16. Small and medium-sizedenterprises17. Science and research18. Education and training19. Telecommunications and IT20. Culture and audiovisual policy21. Regional policy and structural instruments22. Environment23. Consumers and health protection24. Justice and home affairs25. Customs union26. External relations27. Common foreign and security policy28. Financial control29. Financial and budgetary provisions30. Institutions31. Other
35 Accession negotiations: Chapters Luxembourg group (first group of candidate countries)Between March 1998 and December 1999: twenty-three out of thirty-one chapters were opened with eight to eleven chapters provisionally closed (depending on the country).End 1999: chapters closed for all six countries: statistics, Economic and Monetary Union, industrial policy, small and medium-sized enterprises, science and research, consumers and health protection, education and training, telecommunication and IT.Spring 2000: further chapters opened: agriculture, regional policy, freedom of movement of persons, justice and home affairs, financial control, and financial and budgetary provisions.Mid 2000: final chapter opened – agriculture – (remaining questions) with a view to reaching a preliminary overview by the end of 2000 on the situation for these six countries (including problematic areas and transitional periods requested).June 2001: all chapters opened for negotiations: transitional arrangements concerning the free movement of persons for Hungary.
36 Accession negotiations: Chapters Helsinki group (second group of candidate countries)Joined the negotiations in February 2000.28 March 2000: EU opened an initial list of negotiating chapters, with a common core of five chapters for all countries: small and medium-sized enterprises, science and research, education and training, external relations, and common foreign and security policy – and with one, two or three more for some countries.The number and nature of the chapters differed according to each country’s level of preparedness: measured by the applicant country’s progress in meeting the Copenhagen criteria, including transposition of the acquis and establishment of administrative bodies necessary to apply the acquis.25 May 2000: EU provisionally closed some of these first chapters with each of these countries.Negotiations continue, with further chapters to be opened on the basis of differentiation and preparedness.June 2001: all chapters opened for Slovakia, Latvia and Lithuania.
37 Accession negotiations: Procedure Submission of negotiating positions by candidate country, chapter by chapter, following screening.The Commission (DG Enlargement in consultation with relevant "sectoral" DGs) prepares a draft common position (for each chapter), and submits it to the Council (meeting as an intergovernmental conference).The Council unanimously adopts a common position and unanimously decides to open the negotiations on the chapter.Common positions may be altered in the course of negotiations if the applicants submit fresh information or agree to withdraw a request for a transitional period.Chapter provisionally closed following unanimous decision by the intergovernmental conference. Chapters definitively closed only when all negotiations with the candidate country are concluded.
38 Accession negotiations: Roadmap First half of 2001: opening of first chapters: internal market related matters, social matters and environment.Second half of 2001: provisional closure for chapters needing a longer preparation period in the second semester: competition, transport, energy, taxation, customs union, agriculture, justice and home affairs, financial control, Schengen.First half of 2002: provisional closure of remaining chapters and agreement on transitional measures: agriculture (remaining questions), regional policy and structural instruments, financial and budgetary provisions, institutions, other matters.
39 Accession negotiations: Monitoring All chapters opened and those provisionally closed will have an up-date screening to incorporate new acquis adopted since 1999.The up-date screening will also allow the Commission to verify whether the applicants have fulfilled the commitments entered into during the negotiations (so-called monitoring exercise).Negotiation chapters that have been provisionally closed may be reopened if an applicant has not fulfilled its commitments.This procedure is to be triggered only in exceptional cases, i.e. when there is a significant gap between the commitments and the actual progress being made by the applicant country in transposing and applying the relevant acquis.
40 Towards an Enlarged Europe 9 October Regular Reports:The Commission recommends conclusion of negotiations with ten candidate countries: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia.These countries will be ready for membership at the beginning of 2004.2007: indicative date for accession chosen by Bulgaria and Romania.Strengthening support for Turkey’s pre-accession preparations.
41 The Future Member States Next steps for the candidate countries:Preparations for membership will continue and be monitored by the Commission.Special effort required in the following sectors: customs, agriculture, regional policy, financial control.A monitoring report will be issued by the Commission 6 months before envisaged date of accession.Spring 2003: signing of the Accession Treaty.A specific safeguard clause shoud be introduced in the Accession Treaty to allow the Commission to take measures in case of problems.380 million euros Institution Building Facility to support judicial reform and administrative improvements in the new Member States.
42 Ensuring a smooth transition Regular monitoringCommission to report 6 months before accession on:Further progress as to adoption, implementation, enforcement of the acquis,In line with the Countries’ commitments.
43 Safeguard clauses Safeguards may be invoked at any time: General economic clause (2 years) – any Member StateSpecific safeguard clauses: "Operation of internal market, including all sectoral policies which concern economic activities with a cross-border effect, and the area of justice and home affairs" - only new Member States, re. commitments undertaken in negotiations, re. acquis in criminal law as well as civil law.
44 Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey Next steps for Bulgaria and Romania:2007: target date to conclude negotiations.Detailed roadmaps to complete preparations.Judicial and administrative reform.Next steps for Turkey:to fully meet the political criterion.Enhanced support from the EUIncreased financial assistance from 2004.
45 After Copenhagen…2002December 12th, 13th - Copenhagen European Council2003Enhanced pre-accession assistance for Romania and Bulgaria.9th April - European Parliament assent16th April - Signature of the Treaty in Athens with Laeken 10Ratification - Parliamentary / referenda1st May 2004EU has 25 membersEnd of Commission report and recommendation on Turkey's progress
46 Financial issues (1) Conclusions of the Copenhagen European Council 12-13 December 2002Conclusions of the Copenhagen European CouncilThe Overall Financial Agreement:€41 billion in commitments agreed for ;New Member States will benefit from the EU funds for the whole of 2004;Reduction by one-third of new Member States' contributions to EC budget in 2004.Structural actions:€22 billion agreed for , of which one third for the Cohesion Fund and two thirds for structural Funds.Agriculture:Progressive introduction of direct payment to new Member States farmers;€5 billion for rural development in
47 Financial issues (2) Conclusions of the Copenhagen European Council 12-13 December 2002Conclusions of the Copenhagen European CouncilInternal policies:€2.6 billion extra funds available to new Member States to participate in the EC internal policies programmes;Creation of a new Schengen facility (€850 million);€380 million for a transitional facility to support institution building in new Member States;€105 million to support nuclear safety in Lithuania and Slovakia.Lump-sum payment to new Member States:€2.4 billion as cash-flow lump sum, to prevent cash-flow difficulties in the first years of accession;Budgetary compensation payments available to ensure no new Member States would be worse off on accession compared to 2003 (Czech Republic, Slovenia, Malta and Cyprus).
48 Accession: Financial Framework Financial framework for Enlargement :Maximum enlargement-related appropriations for commitments (Million €) for 10 new Member States200420052006Agriculture1 8973 7474 147Structural actions after capping6 0956 9408 812Internal policies and additional transitional expenditure1 4211 3761 351Administration503558612Total maximum commitment appropriations9 95212 65714 958Total commitment appropriation (Berlin 1999 scenario)11 61014 20016 780Payment appropriations (Enlargement)5 69610 49311 840Payment appropriations (Berlin 1999 scenario)8 89011 44014 220
49 The Phare ProgrammeMain pre-accession instrument to assist the 10 applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe in their preparation for joining the European Union.Set up in 1989 to support economic and political transition, Phare had by 1996 extended to include 13 partner countries from the region.Originally allocated € 4.2 billion for , the Phare budget was increased to € billion forAgenda 2000: Annual Phare budget is € 1.62 billion for , i.e. some € 11 billion.
50 The Phare ProgrammeAt the Essen European Council of December 1994, Phare has become the financial instrument for the ten associated CEECs, supporting them in their preparation for accession to the EU.Cyprus, Malta, Turkey have their own pre-accession funding.NOTICE: for the Western Balkan states, Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Phare provided support in their transition to democracy and a market economy. As of 2001, CARDS is the assistance programme for the Western Balkans, including the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Croatia.
51 Phare and Accession Partnership Accession-Led ProgrammingPhare shifted in 1997 from 'demand-driven' to 'accession-driven', concentrating on the priority needs of the 10 candidate countries of Central and Eastern Europe, in light of the accession criteria.Accession Partnerships, accompanied by a National Programme for the Adoption of the Acquis Communautaires (NPAA), Regular Reports and the results of accession negotiations together identify priority areas for support in each country.
52 The Phare Programme Priorities for Action Institution building The candidate countries will be helped to strengthen their democratic institutions and their public administration in order to facilitate their introduction of the acquis and to ensure that they have the administrative and judicial structures to apply the acquis effectively (30% of the budget).Financing of investment Phare co-finances investment in (i) the regulatory infrastructure needed to ensure compliance with the acquis and (ii) in economic and social cohesion through measures similar to those supported in Member States through EU structural funds (70% of the budget).
53 The Phare Programme Institution Building: Twinning Twinning involves the secondment of Member State officials who will be known as Pre-Accession Advisors for a minimum of one year.In addition, Twinning can involve Member States' officials on short term missions, training and other relevant elements. All of these are combined in a twinning package.Twinning will not only provide technical and administrative assistance to the candidate countries but also help to build long-term relationships between existing and future Member States.
54 Institution Building: Twinning Twinning focused initially, in , on four key areas of the acquis in each candidate country:Agriculture;Environment;Finance;Justice and home affairs.Now Twinning covers the whole of the acquis, e.g.: preparation to EU fundings, public finance, human resources development, etc.
55 Institution Building: Twinning A network of National Contact Points has been established to work with the Commission in the twinning process.Each Member State and each candidate country has appointed a representative to liaise with their own administration and to ensure the flow of information through the network.
56 Institution Building: Twinning Twinning projects will operate on the basis of two documents:A framework agreement between the Commission and each Member State which defines the terms and conditions under which Member States will make pre-accession advisors available to the candidate countries;A twinning covenant between the candidate country and the Member State which defines the result to be delivered by the project, the responsibilities of each party, the means to be used to achieve the agreed result and a detailed budget.
57 The Phare Programme: Investment Support (I) Investment in Regulatory InfrastructureSupport for investment to equip key institutions whose capacity to monitor and enforce the acquis needs to be strengthened.For example, putting the food safety structure in place, making borders secure, providing testing and measuring equipment for laboratories or control equipment in the field of consumer protection.
58 The Phare Programme: Investment Support (II) Investment in Economic and Social CohesionIn 2000 Phare has started to support measures similar to those co-financed from the European Regional Development Fund and the European Social Fund:Human resource development;SME development;Business-Related Infrastructure.Programming according to National Development Plans.
59 The Phare Programme Programme Types National Programmes: 80% of the budget, tailor-made for a specific candidate country.Cross-Border Co-operation Programmes: 10% of the budget, aimed at stimulating the cooperation between countries and regions along the borders between Member States and candidate countries and between candidate countries.Multi-Beneficiary Programmes: 10% of the budget, if joint structure or regional cooperation is indispensable.
60 European Union: the biggest investor in candidate countries Strategic investors originating in the Member States of the European Union play a major role in upgrading the CEEC economies, accounting for at least 67% in 1999 of the total foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows.In 1999, the major part of FDI, in percentage, went to Estonia, Slovenia and Poland.
61 European Union: the biggest trading partner with candidate countries in 2001 EU 15 Trade with candidate countries in 2001 (million €)
62 EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries in 2001 (per country) EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries (Share by Country) in 2001
63 EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries in 2001 (per sector) EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries (Share by Sector) in 2001
64 EU 15 Imports from candidate countries in 2001 (per country) EU 15 Imports from candidate countries (Share by Country) in 2001
65 EU 15 Imports from candidate countries in 2001 (per sector) EU 15 Imports from candidate countries (Share by Sector) in 2001
66 Candidate countries GDP in 1999 & 2000 GDP at PPPGDP in € (bn) 1999GDP in € (bn) 2000GDP/Pers in PPS € 1999GDP/Pers 2000% EU Average 1999% EU Average 2000Bulgaria40.644.34 9005 40024Cyprus11.612.417 50018 50082Czech Rep127.2135.112 40013 20058Estonia11.012.17 7008 4003637Hungary108.0117.010 70011 7005152Latvia14.215.65 9006 6002829Lithuania22.824.36 200Malta4.34.611 10011 90053Poland317.4340.28 2008 80039Romania129.4135.45 8006 00027Slovak Rep55.458.310 30010 80048Slovenia29.732.115 00016 1007172Turkey392.6433.36 1006 400CC-137 4007 90035EU-1521 20022 500100In % EU EU average15.8%16%35%Source: Eurostat PPP: Purchase Power Parity
67 Communication Strategy for Enlargement: Objectives Adopted by the Commission in May 2000, the objectives of the Communication Strategy are:In Member StatesCommunicating the reasons for enlargement;Promoting dialogue and debate in society;Information about candidate countries.In Candidate CountriesImproving of public knowledge and understanding;Explaining of implications of accession;Explaining of preparation for membership.
68 Communication Strategy for Enlargement: Implementation Decentralised approach:Through the Representations of the Commission and the Parliament in Member States;Through the Delegations in candidate countries.Priorities to inform multipliers in:Political institutions (EP and other European Institutions, governments, parliaments and regional assemblies);Business & Industry (business leaders, trade unions, professional associations);Civil Society (NGOs, religious and intellectual bodies, universities, teachers in secondary and higher education).
69 Communication Strategy for Enlargement: Budget Budget per country and for the Central Services (in € million)Country2000200120022003200420052006TotalCEECs: Turkey: Malta: Cyprus: Sub-total:MS*:0.55.49.7513.013.56.057.9CS**:188.8.131.529.7TOTAL818.624.4529.2021.4515.85146.75*: Member States**: Central services
70 How to obtain information? The Enlargement Address Book:Delegations of the European Commission in the Candidate Countries:Enlargement Information Centre:Rue Montoyer, 19, B-1000 BrusselsTel: +32 (0)Fax: +32 (0)
71 What information is available? The Enlargement website:- The Enlargement Weekly:- The Enlargement Research Bulletin:Subscribe via Mailing list:- Key documents:Strategy PaperRegular Reports«An Historic opportunity »The Basic ArgumentsFrequently Asked QuestionsState-of-PlayPress ReleasesSpeeches, etc.
72 Addresses Internet: http://europa.eu.int/comm/enlargement/ DG Enlargement:200 rue de la Loi, B-1049 BrusselsTel: +32(0)Fax: +32(0)Enlargement Information Centre:Rue Montoyer, 19, B-1000 BrusselsTel: +32(0)Fax: +32(0)