Presentation on theme: "The ScorePP Approach to evaluate Emission Control Strategies for Urban Priority Pollutants Hans-Christian Holten Lützhøft 1, Webbey De Keyser 2, Lorenzo."— Presentation transcript:
The ScorePP Approach to evaluate Emission Control Strategies for Urban Priority Pollutants Hans-Christian Holten Lützhøft 1, Webbey De Keyser 2, Lorenzo Benedetti 2, Laura Raggatt 3, Peter Steen Mikkelsen 1 and Eva Eriksson 1 1 DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark 2 BIOMATH, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium 3 Urban Pollution Research Centre, Middlesex University, London, UK EEA Seminar Copenhagen Tuesday 7 December 2010
Presentation MSc in pharmacy (1991-1996) Medicinal chemistry, organic synthesis of AMPA-receptor ligands PhD (1996-2000) Environmental Risk Assessment of Antimicrobials; experimental work on ecotoxicity and environmental fate; literature study of ecotoxicity and occurrence in relation to fish farming activities PostDoc at KU-Life (2000-2001) Environmental fate of antimicrobials in soil and porewater PostDoc at Novo Nordisk (2001-2003) Stability testing of tablets – development of super enhanced stability testing methods AssProf at KU-Life (2003-2005) Intestinal absorption of pharmaceuticals Pharmacist (2005-2006) AssocProf at DTU Environment (2006- ) Source characterisation of (organic) priority substances; inherent properties, source tracking, source dynamics, urban releases Sampling, extraction, purification and analysis or organic substances Monitoring; Stakeholder interaction
Background European Water Framework Directive (EU WFD) implemented in 2000 with Environmental Quality Standards implemented in 2008 Aim of EU WFD is to improve water quality of European water courses Both pollution source inventories as well as monitoring programmes have to be established EU member states are obliged to improve water quality through more than one measure, for instance Legislation Improved handling and treatment of waste streams (municipal/industrial wastewater or stormwater) Voluntary initiatives BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Aim The main aim of the ScorePP project was to develop Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Priority Pollutants from urban areas The specific aim of this task was to develop an Urban Framework to identify the most appropriate Emission Control Strategy for reducing the releases of priority pollutants listed in the EU WFD BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Approach Use the developed Emission String concept to establish a pollution source inventory Apply pollution sources in constructed Semi Hypothetical Case Cities Perform scenario calculations (SFA and IUWS model) for the different relevant Emission Control Strategies Identification of appropriate Emission Control Strategies BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
The Emission String concept What is an Emission String concept? A structured way of classifying substance releases from urban pollution sources – e.g. mercury via amalgam at dentists, diuron from painted facades, phthalates from undercoatings of vehicles Requirements Content should be structured and organised in a harmonised way Ensure that different pollution sources could be distinguished from each other To be dynamic and valid EU wide Inspiration US EPA Source Classification Code (US EPA SCC) The Technical Guidance Document on Risk assessment (TGD) Harmonised codes like the Common Nomenclature (CN), the National Classification of Economic Activities (NACE) and the NOmenclature for Sources Emissions (NOSE) EINECS, CAS# BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
The Emission String concept CAS #: unique identification of each substance NOSE-P: unique identification of emission processes NACE: unique identification of economic activities related with the source The ScorePP defined descriptors of Urban Structure, comprising e.g. Construction sites Facilities; e.g. factories, dentists, slaughter houses (i.e. legal entities) Households Rivers Roads Waste sites/landfills Release Pattern Temporal releases on a daily, weekly and yearly basis Release Factor All data are stored in a database BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Compiling data Knowledge on pollution sources and their quantitative and qualitative releases were compiled from Online Risk Assessment Reports from EU Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB) and Household Product Database from US NLM Handbooks and electronic compilations, e.g. the Merck Index, Rippen, the e- Pesticide Manual, Kirk-Othmers Encyclopaedia of Chemical Technology Research articles BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Classifying sources using the Emission String concept BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Case cities and selection criteria in other studies 87 project reviewed, 31 contacted, 17 replied Primary selection criteria Geographical location Good contact Secondary selection criteria City characteristics Climate Data End-users Management and governance Technique/structure BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions Not published yet!
Illustration of the approach to designSemi-hypothetical case city archetypes BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions Not published yet!
Case cities andSemi-hypothetical case city archetypes Case cities: Vastly different with respect to climate, industry, treatment technologies and environmental awareness. + Real-life monitoring, existing industries and release patterns etc - Limited by confidential or missing information SHCCA: Designed to represent different geographical and urban systems All data available which is needed for further work (modelling, visualisation, multi-criteria analysis, evaluation of emission control strategies). BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Description of technical parameters for theSemi-hypothetical case city archetypes BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions IndicatorUnit EINC Baseline techniques: WWTP Secondary (mechanical+ activated sludge) Baseline techniques: CSONone Baseline techniques: BMPPonds Consumption of electricity/heating per capitakWh/year ?? Consumption of water per capita incl. domestic and collective useL/pd/day190130 Industrial wastewater productionm 3 /day 171 00031 342 Percentage of dwellings connected to the sewage system%9099 Percentage of urban wastewater treated to an applicable standard % ( secondary) 7895 Proportion of dwellings lacking basic amenities%10<1 Portion of solid waste processed by incinerator%1880 Portion of solid waste processed by landfill%723 Portion of solid waste processed by recycling%1017 Portion of sludge dispersed on soil or in forests%6050 Portion of sludge processed by incinerator%2145 Portion of sludge processed by landfill%195 Average annual number of CSOsNo.670130 Percentage of CSO treated before discharge baseline% 00 Portion of stormwater conveyed in the combined sewer system% 5010 Portion of stormwater discharged directly to the river% 50 (100% of 50)72 (80 of 90%) Not published yet!
Overview of parameters for theSemi-hypothetical case city archetypes BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions City indicatorsNCEI Population (mio.)0.511.2 City area (km 2 )450500 Precipitation (mm/y)650530 Receiving water flow (m 3 /s)50700 Industries -heavily polluting3070 -moderately polluting119279 Wastewater -treatment typeSecondary -dwellings connected (%)9990 -volume to combined sewer overflows (%)1018 Stormwater -in combined sewer (%)9050 -in separate sewer (%)1050 --stormwater flow to BMPs* (%)20 Not published yet!
Archetypes Geographical system Climate; Size; Rainfall; Population etc Urban system Urban structures; Financial and activity systems; Technical systems and consumption; Pollution level; Local authorities and households Emission control strategies Generic and city specific Geographical system Urban system Emission control strategies BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Emission Control Strategies ECS 1: Baseline The doing-nothing-strategy ECS 2: Implementation of relevant EU directives RoHS, WEEE, Urban wastewater directive, Sewage sludge directive ECS 3: 2 + Household and municipality voluntary initiatives Recycling, information campaigns, greywater treatment, eco-labelling etc. ECS 4: 2 + Industrial Best Available Technologies All industries implement BAT ECS 5: 2 + Post-Environmental Release Control and Treatment Treatment of stormwater, reducing CSO ECS 6: 2 + Advanced end-of-pipe wastewater treatment Full connection to WWTPs, AOP in larger WWTPs BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
ECS2 Schematic illustration of the Emission Control Strategies BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions ECS6 ECS5 ECS4 ECS3 ECS5 ECS3 Not published yet!
Calculations of urban releases using Substance Flow Analysis Substance Flow Analysis Simple book keeping based on the Emission String pollution inventory with quantitative release data Inflow STOCK Outflow BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Calculations of urban releases using the Integrated Urban Wastewater System model Integrated Urban Wastewater System model A dynamic model integrating urban substance input based on the Emission String pollution inventory with quantitative release data Effects of legislative as well as stormwater, wastewater and voluntary initiatives are dynamically modelled to show the results of the various Emission Control Strategies SOURCES RELEASE SURFACE WATER Sludge Soil/Groundwater Air Sediments Water Air Boundaries of the urban system Treatment options Fate models technosphere Fate models environment Septic tankActivated sludge on-line sludge treatment biofilters Physical-chemical treatment WWTP Lagoon/pond Stormwater BMPs BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Substances and their properties and uses Benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P Is a combustion by-product neither commercially produced nor used Is released from combustion of fossil fuel used for transport, electricity and heat but also from various other incineration processes Is a lipophillic substance that sorbs to particles in the gaseous as well as aqueous phases Di(ethylhexyl)phthalate, DEHP Is a plasticizer commercially produced and used in polymer materials Is passively released from wall and floor covering, plastic tubes and cables and from undercoating paste of cars Is a lipophillic substance that sorbs to particles BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Emission Strings for benzo[a]pyrene Emission Strings with release factors Incineration in relation to: waste and heat&power production (sewage sludge, wood, coal, oil etc.) Combustion of fuel for transport Deposition of sludge on land Releases from industrial production of commodities (coke, petroleum, cement and asphalt) Emission Strings with loads Releases from the production of metal, food, textiles, organic and inorganic chemicals Emission Strings without quantitative release data Leaching from bitumen (e.g. roofing) and asphalt Coal tar, petroleum, pulp, fibre and paper and wood preservation industries Run-off from coal storage areas Natural sources like volcano eruptions and forest fires as well as recreational fires BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Emission Strings for di(ethylhexyl)phthalate Emission Strings with release factors None Emission Strings with loads Handling of the pure substance Undercoating of motor vehicles Production of electricity Release from electrical cables – indoor and outdoor Treatment of waste; land fills Various manufacturing; sealants, paint, ink, ceramic, plastic, DEHP Release from floor and wall covering Various building materials; tubes, profiles, coated metal sheets Textiles, clothing, footwear, shoes Emission Strings without quantitative release data None BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Results for benzo[a]pyrene using SFA BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Results for DEHP Using SFA: Using IUWS modelling: Total load to surface water Air emission Urban surfaces Sludge Stormwater sediment/infiltration Degradation Total inflow to the 'system' Rel to ECS1Rel to ECS2 ECS1 1179116N.A.4110838124718002100% ECS2 1016314N.A.361271010901558987%100% ECS3 838612N.A.33375449791325874%85% ECS4 27714.4N.A.1239137347449925%29% ECS5 720721N.A.4014266316831558987%100% ECS6 757014N.A.571571015801558987%100% Total load to surface water Air emission Urban surfaces (soil) WWTP +CSO sludge Stormwater sediment/infiltration Degradation Total inflow to the 'system' Rel to ECS1Rel to ECS2 ECS1 70991450N.A.78228886718002 100% ECS2 60411274N.A.67897481815586 87%100% ECS3 49311083N.A.60485267813350 74%86% ECS4 1672521N.A.1993112504535 25%29% ECS5 40481307N.A.6840174115714312 79%92% ECS6 48401260N.A.721237158215589 87%100% BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Results for DEHP using the IUWS model (ECS 1) BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Results for DEHP using the IUWS model (ECS 4) BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
27 102030405060708090100 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Infiltration pond soil (ug/kg solids) Combined sewer system Stormwater to infiltration ponds BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions Example results for DEHP using the IUWS model (ECS1)
Conclusions Benzo[a]pyrene For reducing the emissions to the receiving compartment focus has to be put on enhanced stormwater management – however, aerial deposition may be the major source as most B[a]P is released to the air compartment A dramatic (-al) change in the way to provide electricity, heat and power and other activities involving combustion of fossil fuel has to take place Di(ethylhexyl)phthalate Both the SFA and the IUWS modelling show that focus has to be put on the best available technologies for the industry, as both the total input of DEHP to the system is severely reduced, as well is the emission to the receiving compartment For both Treatment of wet-weather discharges, or accept sediment pollution... Databases and tools are developed, waiting for more applications! BackgroundAimApproachToolsSubstancesResultsConclusions
Acknowledgement The presented results have been obtained within the framework of the project ScorePP - Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Priority Pollutants, contract no. 037036, a project coordinated by Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark within the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development section of the European Communitys Sixth Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration.