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The ScorePP Approach to Predict Releases of Priority Pollutants From Urban Sources Hans-Christian Holten Lützhøft 1, Erica Donner 2, Veerle Gevaert 3,

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Presentation on theme: "The ScorePP Approach to Predict Releases of Priority Pollutants From Urban Sources Hans-Christian Holten Lützhøft 1, Erica Donner 2, Veerle Gevaert 3,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The ScorePP Approach to Predict Releases of Priority Pollutants From Urban Sources Hans-Christian Holten Lützhøft 1, Erica Donner 2, Veerle Gevaert 3, Webbey De Keyser 3, Tonie Wickman 4, Matej Cerk 5, Eva Eriksson 1, André Lecloux 6, Primo ž Banovec 5 and Anna Ledin 1 1 DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark 2 Urban Pollution Research Centre, Middlesex University, London, UK 3 BIOMATH, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium 4 Environmental Monitoring, Stockholm Stad, Stockholm, Sweden 5 Faculty of civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia 6 Envicat Consulting, Avenue Montesquieu 36, B-1300 Wavre, Belgium EEA Seminar Copenhagen Monday 6 December 2010

2 Presentation MSc in pharmacy ( ) Medicinal chemistry, organic synthesis of AMPA-receptor ligands PhD ( ) Environmental Risk Assessment of Antimicrobials; experimental work on ecotoxicity and environmental fate; literature study of ecotoxicity and occurrence in relation to fish farming activities PostDoc at KU-Life ( ) Environmental fate of antimicrobials in soil and porewater PostDoc at Novo Nordisk ( ) Stability testing of tablets – development of super enhanced stability testing methods AssProf at KU-Life ( ) Intestinal absorption of pharmaceuticals Pharmacist ( ) AssocProf at DTU Environment (2006- ) Source characterisation of (organic) priority substances; inherent properties, source tracking, source dynamics, urban releases Sampling, extraction, purification and analysis or organic substances Monitoring; Stakeholder interaction

3 Background European Water Framework Directive (EU WFD) implemented in 2000 with Environmental Quality Standards implemented in 2008 Aim of EU WFD is to improve water quality of European water courses Both pollution source inventories as well as monitoring programmes have to be established EU member states are obliged to improve water quality through more than one measure, for instance Legislation Improved handling and treatment of waste streams (municipal/industrial wastewater or stormwater) Voluntary initiatives The EU 6 th framework programme financed the DTU Environment coordinated ScorePP (Source control options for reducing the emissions of Priority Pollutants) project 9 partners with 30+ collaborators across Europe and 4 case cities SEP2006-MAR2010, 3½ years

4 Aim The main aim of the ScorePP project was to develop Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Priority Pollutants from urban areas The specific aim of this task was to identify potential sources and to quantify releases of priority pollutants AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

5 Approach Develop Source Classification Framework Compile data on sources & releases Classifying using the Emission String concept AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions Establish releases based on the compiled data

6 Source Classification Framework Requirements Content should be structured and organised in a harmonised way Ensure that the different sources could be distinguished from each other To be dynamic and valid EU wide Inspiration US EPA Source Classification Code (US EPA SCC) The Technical Guidance Document on Risk assessment (TGD) Harmonised codes like the Common Nomenclature (CN), the National Classification of Economic Activities (NACE) and the NOmenclature for Sources Emissions (NOSE) EINECS, CAS# AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

7 National Classification of Economic Activities (NACE) 18 main classes and about 850 subclasses AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

8 NOmenclature for Sources of Emissions (NOSE) 14 main classes and about 750 subclasses AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

9 ScorePP classification of the Urban Structure – the Urban Structure Descriptor (USD) 22 classes in use AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

10 Source Classification Framework – the Emission String concept CAS #: unique identification of each substance NOSE: unique identification of emission processes NACE: unique identification of economic activities related with the source The ScorePP classifications Urban Structure Descriptor (USD), comprising e.g. Construction sites Facilities; e.g. factories, dentists, slaughter houses (i.e. legal entities) Households Rivers Roads Waste sites/landfills Release Profile Descriptor (RPD) Temporal releases on a daily, weekly and yearly basis Release Factor (RF) All data are stored in a database AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

11 Compiling data Online Risk Assessment Reports from EU Hazardous Substance Data Bank and Household Product Database from US NLM Handbooks and electronic compilations, e.g. the Merck Index, Rippen, the e-Pesticide Manual, Kirk-Othmers Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Research articles AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

12 Classifying sources using the ES concept AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

13 Classifying sources using the ES concept AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

14 Substances on the Water Framework Directive AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

15 Substances on the Water Framework Directive – continued AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

16 SCF tested on a selection of WFD substances

17 Number of ESs for each PP (ab 900 ESs in total) AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

18 Which sources were identified for a particular PP – DEHP Handling of the pure substance Undercoating of motor vehicles Production of electricity Release from electrical cables – indoor and outdoor Treatment of waste; land fills Various manufacturing; sealants, paint, ink, ceramic, plastic, DEHP Release from floor and wall covering Various building materials; tubes, profiles, coated metal sheets Textiles, clothing, footwear, shoes AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

19 To which compartment are the substances released to? Air Groundwater Generally to the urban surface To an impervious urban surface To a permeable urban surface Generally to water (wastewater or receiving waters) Directly to water (receiving waters) Indirectly to water (wastewater going to WWTP) AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

20 Substances are released to … AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

21 Number of ESs in each urban structure (ab 900 ESs in total) AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

22 Archetype sources Agriculture Construction sites and buildings Facilities Households Roads Waste disposal Diffuse and other not immediately classifiable sources AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

23 Number of ESs within households (ab 85 ESs in total – 18 substances) AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

24 Substances from households are released to … AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

25 Fertilizers and pest control Diuron: 7,5-25 mg/application Cd: from fertilizers Building materials Ni: 0,3-0,8 mg/m2 stainless steel/yr Cd: 0,01-10 kg/yr from Zn-materials DEHP: 16 tonnes/yr Clothes DEHP: 950 kg/yr Greywater Hg: 17µg/PE/d Cd: 5 kg/yr TCE: µg/L Ni: jewellery, coins, washing etc. Benzo(a)pyrene: 1,8 µg/PE/d Painting and car wash DEHP: 12 kg/yr Environmental releases due to households Heating Anthracene: 0,8-102 mg/kg wood Benzo(a)pyrene: 2,7 mg/kg coal Benzo(a)pyrene: 27 µg/kg wood Smoking Anthracene: 34 ng/cigaret Benzene: µg/cigaret Benzo(a)pyrene: ng/cigaret Clothes and building materials DEHP:250 kg DCM: µg/m2/h TCE: 3,6 µg/m2/h Fertilizers Cd: 500 g/yr Building materials DEHP:600 kg/yr Plus releases of HCB, HCH, PeCB, TBTs, chlorpyrifos, endrin, Pb, trifluralin and NPs AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

26 Environmental releases due to vehicular transport on roads Anthracene Combustion: 5,2-28 µg/kg fuel burned, depending on vehicle and fuel type Benzene Combustion: 4-10 mg/km driven, depending on vehicle type Benzo(a)pyrene Combustion: 1-8 µg/km driven, without and with catalyst Cadmium (from both break linings, tyres, fuel and asphalt) 7 kg/year is released in Stockholm with inhabitants DEHP (from undercoating) 200 kg/year is released in Stockholm with inhabitants Mercury Tyres: µg/km depending on vehicle type Roads: 3-17 µg/km depending on vehicle type Nickel Combustion: and 3, ng/km driven, for gasoline and diesel, respectively Brake-linings, tyres and asphalt: ng/km AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

27 Statistics for Denmark year 2007 AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

28 Environmental releases due to vehicular transport on roads Depending on fuel and vehicle type: Anthracene: kg Nickel: 4,4-117 kg Benzene from busses, lorries etc: 105 tonnes Cadmium: 49 kg Mercury: 0,3-12 tonnes Plus releases of anthracene from wear & tear of tyres and asphalt and release of anthracene, benzene, benzo(a)pyrene due to leakage & spillage Benzene from cars: 154 tonnes Benzo(a)pyrene: 360 kg DEHP: 1,41 tonnes Release of nickel from Danish highways: 108 kg Thomas Ruby Bentzen, PhD thesis (2008) AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

29 Conclusions SCF established – based on literature knowledge about sources About 900 ESs established for the 25 WFD substances Ranging from 5 ESs for atrazine and 133 ESs for nickel Overall 16% with concrete knowledge about release quantities Overall 65% without any quantitative data on release into the technosphere WFD substances occur in a wide variety of sources and activities in urban settings and are released to all studied compartments Most sources are related to production activities Other large categories are households, waste disposal, agriculture, construction and transport Substances from households are mainly released to air, wastewater and to the urban surface Substances released to air (both from household and transport) are mainly bi- products from combustion AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

30 Conclusions – continued Classifying the sources according to the Urban Structure descriptor enables Sources to be linked to GIS, thus enhancing visualisation Definition of archetype sources and thus a better targeting of mitigation options and Emission Control Strategies AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

31 Outlook SCF has been used on national scale to calculate releases from a particular archetype source, i.e. roads (Holten Lützhøft et al., 2009) SCF has been used to identify pollution sources in catchments of Copenhagen (Holten Lützhøft et al., submitted) SCF can be used to establish a pollution inventory for a given catchment in the process of either identifying pollution sources or identifying the most appropriate emission control strategy (Eriksson et al., 2010) Implemented European wide it will help in the process of prioritising finances and work power It would be interesting to perform a comparison of pollution inventories with human health statistics, i.e. the spatial incidents of cancer compared with for instance the expected releases of benzo[a]pyrene AimApproachSubstancesResultsConclusions

32 Acknowledgement The presented results have been obtained within the framework of the project ScorePP - Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Priority Pollutants, contract no , a project coordinated by Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark within the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development section of the European Communitys Sixth Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration.

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