Presentation on theme: "Revolution to the Constitution (Continued) U.S. HISTORY."— Presentation transcript:
Revolution to the Constitution (Continued) U.S. HISTORY
Standards SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution.
Unit Key Terms 1. Articles of Confederation 2. Daniel Shay’s Rebellion 3. Virginia Plan 4. New Jersey Plan 5. The Great Compromise 6. Bicameral legislature 7. Three-Fifth Compromise 8. Separation of Powers 9. Charles de Montesquieu 10. Federalism 11. Checks and Balance 12. Federalist 13. Anti-Federalist 14. The Federalist Papers 15. James Madison 16. Bill of Rights 17. 1 st Amendment 18. 9 th Amendment 19. 10 th Amendment 20. Whiskey Rebellion 21. George Washington’s Farewell Address 22. Alien and Sedition Acts 23. Kentucky and Virginia Resolution
Articles of Confederation (SSUSH5a) The Articles of Confederation was the first attempt at self- government for the Americans The Articles of Confederation showed that Americans’ feared a powerful national (Federal or central) government.
Articles of Confederation (SSUSH5a) As a result, the Articles created a government that had no executive branch lacked the power to tax could not regulate commerce no ability to establish a national currency gave power to the states governments (not the national government)
Articles of Confederation (SSUSH5a) The Articles of Confederation resulted in a weak national (Federal or central) government and convinces Americans that then needed a new government.
How a you (your state) represented in Congress (Senate and House)?
Creating the Constitution: The Great Compromise (SSUSH5c) One great issue facing the delegates to the Constitutional Convention was how different sized states could have equal representation in the new government. States with large populations supported the Virginia Plan. This plan created a legislative branch in which representatives were assigned based on each state’s population (Today: California has 53 representative, Georgia has 14 representatives).
Creating the Constitution: The Great Compromise (SSUSH5c) States with smaller populations supported a New Jersey Plan. This plan created a legislative branch in which all states were equally represented (2 Senators for each state). Delegates to the Constitutional Convention settled the issue of representation in Congress by approving the Great Compromise. The Great Compromise called for the creation of a legislature with two chambers ( Bi-cameral ): a House of Representatives, with representation based on population, and a Senate, with equal representation for all states.
Creating the Constitution: The Great Compromise (SSUSH5c)
How do you figure out representation when your state has a large percentage of slaves?
Creating the Constitution: Slavery (SSUSH5c) Though slavery existed in all the states, southern states depended on slave labor because their economies were based on producing cash crops. When it became clear that states with large populations might have more representatives in the new national government, states with large slave populations demanded to be allowed to count their slaves as a part of their population. Northern states resisted. Both sides compromised by creating the Three-Fifth Compromise. The Three-Fifth Compromise : allowed the states to count three-fifths of their slaves when calculating their entire population.
Creating the Constitution: Limited Government (SSUSH5c, 5b) Despite the fact that the Constitution was constructed to fix the weakness of the Articles of Confederation and a weak national (Federal or Central) government, many still feared strong central governments. To stop the Constitution from becoming too powerful, the framers of the Constitution created a limited government with divided powers.
Creating the Constitution: Limited Government (SSUSH5c, 5b) Three limits to the national government Separation of Powers: Created by French political thinker Charles de Montesquieu. Separation of Powers limits the federal government’s power by creating a legislative, executive, and judicial branch of government. Federalism: Power is divided between the national and state governments. Checks and Balances: limits the national government by balancing the power between the legislative, executive and judicial branch by giving each branch certain powers of the other branches.
3 Ring Circus ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tEPd98CbbMk ) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tEPd98CbbMk
Review 1. What was the purpose of the Articles of Confederation and list two weaknesses? 2. What was the significance of the Shay’s Rebellion? 3. During the creation of the Constitution, what was the significance of the Great Compromise? 4. During the creation of the Constitution, what compromise solved the issue of slave representation? 5. Define Separation of Powers and who developed the political philosophy? 6. Define Federalism? 7. Define Checks and Balances?
Creating the Constitution: Federalists and Anti-Federalists (SSUSH5b) As soon the Constitution were published, the Federalist and the anti-Federalist began to argue of the contents of the document The Federalist wanted the Constitution and a strong national (federal or central) government. The anti-Federalists and Thomas Jefferson: believed the government created by the Constitution would be too powerful and would eliminate the power of the states.
Creating the Constitution: Federalists and Anti-Federalists (SSUSH5b) Federalist also argued that the Constitution did not have a Bill of Rights to describe the rights guaranteed to the states and to each citizen. To counter these claims of the anti-Federalist. James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and the Federalist wrote The Federalist papers that supported ratification of the Constitution and explained the intent behind its major provisions.
Creating the Constitution: Federalists and Anti-Federalists (SSUSH5b) James Madison also wrote the Bill of Rights to be added to the Constitution after it was ratified. The Bill of Rights is the first 10 amendments to the Constitution and they guarantee states’ rights and individuals’ rights. The Constitution was eventually ratified and became the basis for all law, rights, and governmental power in the United States.
Creating the Constitution: Bill of Rights protects states’ and individuals’ rights. (SSUSH5d) 1 st Amend : Guarantees freedom of religion, of speech, and of the press, and the right to petition the government 9 th Amend: Declares that rights not mentioned in the Constitution belong to the people 10 th Amend: Declares that powers not given to the national government belong to the states or to the people
Review 1. What political group was for the ratification of the Constitution and wanted a strong federal government? 2. What political group was against the ratification of the Constitution and wanted strong state governments? 3. What were the roles of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison in the ratification of the Constitution? 4. How did the Federalist and the Federalist Papers persuade the Anti-federalist to ratify the Constitution? 5. What was the purpose of the Bill of Rights? 6. List 5 individual rights listed in the 1 st Amendment? 7. What was the purpose of the 9 th Amendment 8. What was the purpose of the 10 th Amendment?
Presidency of George Washington (SSUSH5e) During George Washington time as the President of the United States, it was important for him to show that the new Constitutional Government was strong. Washington was force to show the strength of the new government, when Congress passed taxes on liquor to help pay the states’ debt from the Revolutionary War. The tax hit the small whiskey-makers in western settlements particularly hard because they made liquor using excess crops of grain in order to make it easier to transport.
Presidency of George Washington (SSUSH5e) The Whiskey Rebellion resulted when, western citizens, armed violence broke out as farmers frightened and attacked federal tax collectors. George Washington led a large militia force into the western counties and put down the rebellion. The Whiskey Rebellion showed the Constitutional (federal, national, central) Government was strong.
Washington’s Farwell Address (Nonintervention and Political Parties) (SSUSH5e) Washington was the most influential and popular figure in the United States. During Washington’s Farwell Address, he warned citizens about two future political issues He favored nonintervention (Isolationism or Neutrality) in European affairs. He avoided siding with France against Great Britain on political issues. He warned about the dangers of political parties ( factions ). Example: Federalist vs. anti-Federalist.
Presidency of John Adams (SSUSH5e) Like Washington, John Adams set examples that influenced future presidents as well as the course of American history and continued the disagreement between Federalist (Adams) and anti-Federalist (Jefferson) During Adams Presidency, Congress and Adams passed the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Alien Act: increased citizenship requirements so that Jefferson could not receive support from the immigrant community. The Sedition Act: tried to stop the anti-Federalist criticism with attempts to limit the speech and press rights of Jefferson’s followers.
Alien and Sedition Acts (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xqAt8A0 W204 )https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xqAt8A0 W204
Washington’s Farwell Address (Nonintervention and Political Parties) (SSUSH5e) Jefferson and Madison then argued over the Kentucky and Virginia Resolution which said that states could refuse to enforce federal laws they did not agree with. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolution was the beginning of the states’ rights concept.
Review 1. What was the significance of the Whiskey Rebellion? 2. What did George Washington warn citizens about during his Farewell Address? 3. During John Adams presidency what 2 acts were created to limit individual freedoms and list two freedoms that were limited? 4. What was the significance of the Kentucky and Virginia Resolution? 5. Which two politicians debated the Kentucky and Virginia Resolution?