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Furniture Module 3 - Purchasing recommendations European Commission GPP Training Toolkit.

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1 Furniture Module 3 - Purchasing recommendations European Commission GPP Training Toolkit

2 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 2 Scope Furniture is a broad product group that encompasses very different types of furniture (chairs, tables, wardrobes, shelves, cupboards...) with very different uses (for schools, offices, kitchens, bathrooms, outdoors, special uses, etc.).

3 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 3 Scope The proposed criteria cover: –Indoor furniture. This includes indoor furniture for business purposes, e.g. offices and schools, as well as for domestic purposes. It includes all free-standing or built-in furniture units, which are used for storing, hanging, lying, sitting, working and eating. It does not include, however, building products (for example, steps, walls, mouldings, panels), sanitary equipment, carpets, fabrics, office supplies, and other products, whose primary purpose is not to function as furniture. –Outdoor furniture. This includes mainly benches, tables and chairs, excluding other products, whose primary purpose is not to function as furniture (such as streetlights, bike-parks, playgrounds, etc.).

4 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 4 Accompanying information The following documents may also be referred to: –Product Sheet on Furniture, containing a slightly expanded version of the information in these slidesProduct Sheet on Furniture –Background Product Report on Furniture, providing more detailed background information on how these purchasing recommendations have been developedBackground Product Report on Furniture For the full GPP Training Toolkit please visit:

5 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 5 Key environmental impacts

6 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 6 Purchasing criteria The proposed criteria are based on existing ecolabel sources. The criteria focus on the materials which are most typically used in the production of furniture: wood and wood-based products, metals, plastics, padding and textiles. Criteria are also recommended for coating and adhesives/glues used in the assembly of the product and for packaging.

7 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 7 Furniture - Core GPP criteria Furniture - Core GPP Criteria - Note: For implementation notes see the notes page

8 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 8 Purchase of furniture produced with environmentally friendly materials and processes. Subject matter Wood and wood-based materials All wood and wood-based materials shall come from legally sourced timber. Verification: Certificates of chain of custody for the wood certified as FSC, PEFC or any other equivalent means of proof, will be accepted as proof of compliance. The legal origin of wood can also be demonstrated with a tracing system being in place. These voluntary systems may be 3rd party certified, often as part of ISO 9000 and/or ISO or EMAS management systems. Specifications Furniture - Core GPP criteria

9 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 9 (Verification cont.) If wood stems from a country that has signed a Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) with the EU, the FLEGT licence may serve as proof of legality. For the non-certified wood bidders shall indicate the types (species), quantities and origins of the wood used in production, together with a declaration of their legality. As such the wood shall be able to be traced throughout the whole production chain from the forest to the product. In specific cases, where the evidence provided is not considered sufficient to prove compliance with the requested technical specifications, contracting authorities may ask suppliers for further clarifications of proof. Specifications (cont.) Furniture - Core GPP criteria

10 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 10 Specifications (cont.) Furniture - Core GPP criteria Plastics parts All plastic parts 50g shall be marked for recycling according to ISO or equivalent and must not contain additions of other materials that may hinder their recycling. Verification: Bidders must provide a description of the plastic materials that are present and the quantities used, the way in which they are labelled and how they are attached to one another or to other materials. Products carrying the Nordic Swan will be deemed to comply.

11 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 11 Surface coating of wood, plastic and/or metal parts The products used for surface coating shall: –Not contain hazardous substances that are classified according to Directive 1999/45/EC as carcinogenic (R40, R45, R49), harmful to the reproductive system (R60, R61, R62, R63), mutagenic (R46, R68), toxic (R23, R24, R25, R26, R27, R28, R51), allergenic when inhaled (R42) or harmful to the environment (R50, R50/53, R51/53, R52, R52/53, R53), cause heritable genetic damage (R46), danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure (R48), possible risks of irreversible effects (R68). –Not contain more than 5% by weight of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). –For phtalates: no use is allowed of phtalates that at the time of application fulfil the classification criteria of any of the following risk phrases (or combinations thereof): R60, R61, R62, in accordance with Directive 67/548/EEC and its amendments. not contain aziridine –not contain Chromium (VI) compunds Specifications (cont.) Furniture - Core GPP criteria

12 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 12 Verification: Bidders must present a list with all surface treatment substances used for each material present in the furniture and their Security Data Sheet or equivalent documentation demonstrating compliance with the above criteria. Furniture carrying the Nordic Swan Ecolabel (if they comply with the criteria R17 of the Ecolabel) will be deemed to comply. Adhesives and glues The VOC content of adhesives used in the assembly of furniture shall not exceed 10% by weight. Verification: Bidders must present a list with all adhesives used in the assembly of furniture and their Security Data Sheet or equivalent documentation where the amount of VOCs is displayed demonstrating compliance with the above criteria. Furniture carrying the Nordic Swan ecolabel will be deemed to comply. Specifications (cont.) Furniture - Core GPP criteria

13 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 13 Packaging materials Packaging must consist of readily recycled material, and/or materials taken from renewable resources, or be a multi-use system. All packaging materials shall be easily separable by hand into recyclable parts consisting of one material (e.g. cardboard, paper, plastic, textile). Verification: A description of the product packaging shall be provided together with a corresponding declaration of compliance with these criteria. Specifications (cont.) Furniture - Core GPP criteria

14 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 14 Durability, reparability, fitness for use and ergonomics Furniture must meet [insert relevant national/international quality standards] or equivalent regarding serviceability (e.g. safety, abrasion resistance, tensile strength, light fastness, rub fastness, deformation by compression, ergonomics). Verification: Bidders must provide appropriate documentation to demonstrate compliance with these standards. Specifications (cont.) Furniture - Core GPP criteria

15 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 15 Additional points will be awarded for: Sustainable forest management: The percentage of the final product made of wood, wood fibres or wood particles stemming from forests that are verified as being managed so as to implement the principles and measures aimed at ensuring sustainable forest management, on condition that these criteria characterize and are relevant for the product. In Europe, these principles and measures shall at least correspond to those of the Pan- European Operational Level Guidelines for Sustainable Forest Management, as endorsed by the Lisbon Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (2 to 4 June 1998). Outside Europe they shall at least correspond to the UNCED Forest Principles (Rio de Janeiro, June 1992) and, where applicable, to the criteria or guidelines for sustainable forest management as adopted under the respective international and regional initiatives (ITTO, Montreal Process, Tarapoto Process, UNEP/FAO Dry-Zone Africa Initiative). Award criteria Furniture - Core GPP criteria

16 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 16 Verification: Certificates of chain of custody for the wood fibres certified as FSC, PEFC or any other equivalent means of proof, will be accepted as proof of compliance. Any other appropriate means of proof, such as a technical dossier of the manufacturer will also be accepted. Recycled materials content: Percentage by weight of recycled content of wood-based materials, plastics and/or metals in the final piece of furniture. Verification: Bidders must provide appropriate documentation where the recycled content percentage by weight is stated. Award criteria (cont.) Furniture - Core GPP criteria

17 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 17 Textiles: the products shall: (a) Not contain hazardous substances that are classified according to Directive 1999/45/EC as carcinogenic (R40, R45, R49), harmful to the reproductive system (R60, R61, R62, R63), mutagenic (R46, R68), toxic (R23, R24, R25, R26, R27, R28, R51), allergenic when inhaled (R42) or harmful to the environment (R50, R50/53, R51/53, R52, R52/53, R53), cause heritable genetic damage (R46), danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure (R48), possible risks of irreversible effects (R68); Award criteria (cont.) Furniture - Core GPP criteria

18 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 18 (b) For biocides especially: Biocidal or biostatic products shall only be allowed if the active biocide component is approved by Directive 98/8/EC and the active biocide component is not classified by means of any of the following R-phrases: R23/24; R23/25; R23/24/25; R24/25; R26/27; R26/27; R26/27/28; R27/28; R39/23; R39/24; R39/25; R39/23/24; R39/23/25; R39/24/25; R39/23/24/25; R39/26; R39/27; R39/28; R39/26/27; R39/26/28; R39/27/28; R39/26/27/28; R48/21; R48/22; R48/20/21; R48/20/22; R48/21/22; R48/20/21/22; R48/23; R48/24; R48/25; R48/23/24; R48/23/25; R48/24/25; R48/23/24/25; R50/53; R51/53 and R52/53.; Award criteria (cont.) Furniture - Core GPP criteria

19 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 19 (c) For phthalates: No use is allowed of phthalates that at the time of application fulfil the classification criteria of any of the following risk phrases (or combinations thereof): R60, R61, R62, in accordance with Directive 67/548/EEC and its amendments. Verification: All products carrying the European Ecolabel for textiles or the Öko-Tex Standard 100 label will be deemed to comply. Any other appropriate means of proof, such as a technical dossier of the manufacturer or a test report from a recognised body will also be accepted. Award criteria (cont.) Furniture - Core GPP criteria

20 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 20 [For padding materials] Ecolabel criteria for padding materials: The padding material in the furniture meet the ecological criteria relating to the product itself and production processes of the Certipur standard (full criteria document available at or the European Ecolabel (full criteria document available at http//eur- lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2002:236:0010:0015:EN:PDF). Verification: All products carrying the European Ecolabel or the Certipur label will be deemed to comply. Any other appropriate means of proof, such as a technical dossier of the manufacturer or a test report from a recognised body will also be accepted. Award criteria (cont.) Furniture - Core GPP criteria

21 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 21 Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria Furniture - Comprehensive GPP Criteria - Note: For implementation notes see the notes page

22 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 22 All wood and wood-based materials shall come from legally sourced timber. Verification: Certificates of chain of custody for the wood certified as FSC, PEFC or any other equivalent means of proof, will be accepted as proof of compliance. The legal origin of the wood can also be demonstrated with a tracing system being in place. These voluntary systems may be 3rd party certified, often as part of ISO 9000 and/or ISO or EMAS management systems. Purchase of furniture produced with environmentally friendly materials and processes. Subject matter Specifications Wood and wood-based materials Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

23 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 23 (Verification cont.): If wood stems from a country that has signed a Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) with the EU, the FLEGT licence may serve as proof of legality. For the non-certified wood bidders shall indicate the types (species), quantities and origins of the wood used in production, together with a declaration of their legality. As such the wood shall be able to be traced throughout the whole production chain from the forest to the product. In specific cases, where the evidence provided is not considered sufficient to prove compliance with the requested technical specifications, contracting authorities may ask suppliers for further clarifications of proof. Specifications (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

24 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 24 At least 30% of the solid wood or wood-based materials used shall come from forests that are verified as being managed so as to implement the principles and measures aimed at ensuring sustainable forest management, on the condition that these criteria characterize and are relevant for the product. In Europe, these principles and measures shall at least correspond to those of the Pan-European Operational Level Guidelines for Sustainable Forest Management, as endorsed by the Lisbon Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (2 to 4 June 1998). Outside Europe they shall at least correspond to the UNCED Forest Principles (Rio de Janeiro, June 1992) and, where applicable, to the criteria or guidelines for sustainable forest management as adopted under the respective international and regional initiatives (ITTO, Montreal Process, Tarapoto Process, UNEP/FAO Dry-Zone Africa Initiative). Specifications (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

25 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 25 Verification: Certificates of chain of custody for the wood fibres certified as FSC, PEFC or any other equivalent means of proof, will be accepted as proof of compliance. Any other appropriate means of proof, such as a technical dossier of the manufacturer will also be accepted. Specifications (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

26 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 26 Preservatives (only for outdoors furniture) Wood classified with a durability class of 1 or 2 according to EN or equivalent must not have been treated with preservatives. Wood not classified with a durability class of 1 or 2 according to EN or equivalent, must not have been treated with substances classified according to Directive 1999/45/EC as carcinogenic (R40, R45, R49), harmful to the reproductive system (R60, R61, R62, R63), mutagenic (R46, R68) or allergenic when inhaled (R42). The active substances in preservatives must not be based on arsenic, chrome or organic tin compounds. Verification: Bidders must present the durability classification of the timber products together with a list of the preservation substances used for each material present in the furniture and their Safety Data Sheet or equivalent documentation demonstrating compliance with the above criteria. Products carrying the Nordic Swan ecolabel will be deemed to comply. Specifications (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

27 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 27 Specifications (cont.) Plastics parts All plastic parts 50g shall be marked for recycling according to ISO 11469, or equivalent, and must not contain additions of other materials that may hinder their recycling. Verification: Bidders must provide a description of the plastic materials that are present and the quantities used, the way in which they are labelled and how they are attached to one another or to other materials. Products carrying the Nordic Swan ecolabel will be deemed to comply. Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

28 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 28 Surface coating of wood, plastic and/or metal parts The products used for surface coating shall: –Not contain hazardous substances that are classified according to Directive 1999/45/EC as carcinogenic (R40, R45, R49), harmful to the reproductive system (R60, R61, R62, R63), mutagenic (R46, R68), toxic (R23, R24, R25, R26, R27, R28, R51), allergenic when inhaled (R42) or harmful to the environment (R50, R50/53, R51/53, R52, R52/53, R53), cause heritable genetic damage (R46), danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure (R48), possible risks of irreversible effects (R68). –For phtalates: no use is allowed of phtalates that at the time of application fulfil the classification criteria of any of the following risk phrases (or combinations thereof): R60, R61, R62, in accordance with Directive 67/548/EEC and its amendments. –Not contain aziridine –Not contain Chromium (VI) compounds –Not contain more than 5% by weight of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Specifications (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

29 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 29 Verification: Bidders must present a list with all surface treatment substances used for each material present in the furniture and their Security Data Sheet or equivalent documentation demonstrating compliance with the above criteria. Furniture carrying the Nordic Swan Ecolabel (if they comply with the criteria R17 of the Ecolabel) will be deemed to comply. Adhesives and glues The VOC content of adhesives used in the assembly of furniture shall not exceed 10% by weight. Verification: Bidders must present a list with all adhesives used in the assembly of furniture and their Security Data Sheet or equivalent documentation where the amount of VOCs is displayed demonstrating compliance with the above criteria. Furniture carrying the Nordic Swan Ecolabel will be deemed to comply. Specifications (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

30 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 30 Polyurethane foams The blowing agents of polyurethane foams (PUR-foams) must not be CFC, HCFC, HFC or methylene chloride. Verification: Bidders must present a declaration by the foam manufacturer of compliance with this criterion. Specifications (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

31 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 31 Packaging materials Packaging must consist of readily recycled material, and/or materials taken from renewable resources, or be a multi-use system. All packaging materials shall be easily separable by hand into recyclable parts consisting of one material (e.g. cardboard, paper, plastic, textile). Verification: A description of the product packaging shall be provided together with a corresponding declaration of compliance with these criteria. Specifications (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

32 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 32 Durability, reparability, fitness for use and ergonomics Furniture must meet [insert relevant national/international quality standards] or equivalent regarding serviceability (e.g. safety, abrasion resistance, tensile strength, light fastness, rub fastness, deformation by compression, ergonomics). Verification: Bidders must provide appropriate documentation to demonstrate compliance with these standards. Specifications (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

33 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 33 Additional points will be awarded for: Sustainable forest management: The percentage of the final product made of wood, wood fibres or wood particles stemming from forests that are verified as being managed so as to implement the principles and measures aimed at ensuring sustainable forest management as defined above. Verification: As above. Recycled materials content: Percentage by weight of recycled content of wood-based materials, plastics and/or metals in the final piece of furniture. Verification: Bidders must provide appropriate documentation where the recycled content percentage by weight is stated. Award criteria Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

34 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 34 Packaging: The tenderer should indicate the percentage by weight of recycled content in the packaging materials (plastics and cardboard). Verification: Bidders must provide a list of the different packaging materials, their weight and a declaration by the packaging producer/s where it states the % of recycled content in their packaging material. Award criteria (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

35 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 35 Textiles: the products shall: (a) Not contain hazardous substances that are classified according to Directive 1999/45/EC as carcinogenic (R40, R45, R49), harmful to the reproductive system (R60, R61, R62, R63), mutagenic (R46, R68), toxic (R23, R24, R25, R26, R27, R28, R51), allergenic when inhaled (R42) or harmful to the environment (R50, R50/53, R51/53, R52, R52/53, R53), cause heritable genetic damage (R46), danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure (R48), possible risks of irreversible effects (R68); Award criteria (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

36 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 36 Textiles: (b) For biocides especially: Biocidal or biostatic products shall only be allowed if the active biocide component is approved by Directive 98/8/EC and the active biocide component is not classified by means of any of the following R-phrases: R23/24; R23/25; R23/24/25; R24/25; R26/27; R26/27; R26/27/28; R27/28; R39/23; R39/24; R39/25; R39/23/24; R39/23/25; R39/24/25; R39/23/24/25; R39/26; R39/27; R39/28; R39/26/27; R39/26/28; R39/27/28; R39/26/27/28; R48/21; R48/22; R48/20/21; R48/20/22; R48/21/22; R48/20/21/22; R48/23; R48/24; R48/25; R48/23/24; R48/23/25; R48/24/25; R48/23/24/25; R50/53; R51/53 and R52/53; Award criteria (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

37 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 37 Textiles: (c) For phthalates: No use is allowed of phthalates that at the time of application fulfil the classification criteria of any of the following risk phrases (or combinations thereof): R60, R61, R62, in accordance with Directive 67/548/EEC and its amendments. Verification: All products carrying the European Ecolabel for textiles or the Öko-Tex Standard 100 label will be deemed to comply. Any other appropriate means of proof, such as a technical dossier of the manufacturer or a test report from a recognised body will also be accepted. Award criteria (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

38 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 38 [For textiles] Organically produced cotton or other natural fibres: Bidders must indicate the proportion of cotton or other natural fibres used in the textiles by weight deriving from organic production. To be considered as such, the fibre must be produced according to Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 until 31 December 2008, and Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 as of 1 January Verification: The supplier must provide evidence of the origin of the fibres used and the organic nature of their production, such as the EU organic logo or approved national logos for organic production. Award criteria (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

39 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 39 [For textiles] Recycled fibres: Bidders must indicate the proportion of the textile by weight made from recycled fibres, i.e. fibres originating only from cuttings from textile and clothing manufacturers or from post-consumer waste (textile or otherwise). Verification: The supplier must provide evidence of the origin of the recycled fibres used. Award criteria (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

40 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 40 [For padding materials] Ecolabel criteria for padding materials: The padding material in the furniture meet the ecological criteria relating to the product itself and production processes of the Certipur standard (full criteria document available at or the European Ecolabel (full criteria document available at http//eur- lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2002:236:0010:0015:EN:PDF). Verification: All products carrying the European Ecolabel for textiles or the Certipur label will be deemed to comply. Any other appropriate means of proof, such as a technical dossier of the manufacturer or a test report from a recognised body will also be accepted. Award criteria (cont.) Furniture - Comprehensive GPP criteria

41 European Commission GPP Training Toolkit Module 3: Purchasing recommendations for furniture 41 Further information For the full GPP Training Toolkit please visit: Toolkit developed for the European Commission by ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability, 2008 Owner, Editor: European Commission, DG Environment-G2, B-1049, Bruxelles Disclaimer: The European Commission accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to the information presented in this document Pictures courtesy of StockXchng: Razvan Caliman (s. 1), sevenyears (s. 2), Amr Safey (s. 7), Thad Zajdowicz (s. 19)


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