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© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 1 Presentation by Alsace of the instruments available within the region to support awareness raising activities and the development of SMEs towards innovation Catherine Ledig, director of the Association pour le Développement des Entreprises et des Compétences, Brussels: 11th October 2005 email@example.com www.adec.fr OPEN DAYS : Innovation the role of, and challenges facing SMEs
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 2 Contents 1.Definitions 2.Alsace key figures and context 3. Alsace innovation policy - Framework - Actors - Challenges - Questions and recommendations 4.Conclusions 5.Bibliography
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 3 Contents 1.Definitions -Innovation -Knowledge economy -SMEs 2.Alsace key figures and context 3. Alsace innovation policy - Framework - Actors - Challenges - Questions and recommendations 4.Conclusions 5.Bibliography
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 4 Source 4 pages du SESSI n°168 déc 2002 The Oslo Manual: The measurement of scientific and technological activities The concept of innovation is defined by the OECDs Oslo Manual It allows international comparisons. Its definitions of innovation are strictly technology based But they can equally be the result of improvements or the provision of new product associated services (service-sector innovation) The innovation of a product is characterised by the introduction on the market of a new product (goods or services) that clearly modifies its fundamental characteristics, its technical specifications, its incorporated software or any other immaterial element as well as its foreseen usage or the ease with which it can be used. The innovation of a process is defined by the introduction into an enterprise of a production process, a new or clearly modified method for service provision or the delivery of products. The result must be significant in terms of production, product quality, or the cost of production and distribution. Purely aesthetic changes such as design or fashion phenomenon, organisational changes or packaging modifications are excluded from the definition. These changes are taken into account in the overall innovation. Innovation can result in a new product or process for an enterprise but not for the market. This is the case when an enterprise adopts a technology that has already been implemented by a competitor.
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 5 Innovation is an essential factor of growth. It can be of two types : the innovation of a product and the innovation of a process. Bringing to the fore a new product for sale comes under the first category. Using new machines, new sources of energy, new raw materials or organising the production differently comes under the second one. Innovation can be the result of a prior invention. Thanks to innovation, an enterprise can differentiate itself from its competitors and obtain higher profits, especially if the company has taken care to patent the innovation. Innovation is a process through which economic and social value is extracted from knowledge through the generation, development and implementation of ideas to produce new or improved products, services, or processes. Source: Innovation Fund, Projects and Innovation (P&I) Section Canada Definitions of Innovation
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 6 Knowledge economy: economy characterised by an accelerated rhythm of innovation, by a constant increased use of knowledge and competences and by a massive increase in their diffusion thanks to ICT. Or: economy founded on knowledge and technological innovation, which allows the constitution of a network of know-how. Source CETECH CA Definition of the general context: Knowledge economy
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 7 TITLE I DEFINITION OF MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES ADOPTED BY THE COMMISSION Article 1 Enterprise An enterprise is considered to be any entity engaged in an economic activity, irrespective of its legal form. This includes, in particular, self-employed persons and family businesses engaged in craft or other activities, and partnerships or associations regularly engaged in an economic activity.. Article 2 Staff headcount and financial ceilings determining enterprise categories 1.The category of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is made up of enterprises which employ fewer than 250 persons and which have an annual turnover not exceeding EUR 50 million, and/or an annual balance sheet total not exceeding EUR 43 million. 2. Within the SME category, a small enterprise is defined as an enterprise which employs fewer than 50 persons and whose annual turnover and/or annual balance sheet does not exceed EUR 10 million. 3. Within the SME category, a microenterprise is defined as an enterprise which employs fewer than 10 persons and whose annual turnover and/or annual balance sheet total does not exceed EUR 2 million. Source OJEU 6 May 2003 (2003/361/EC) Definition of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 8 Science and technology contribute to innovation and to industrial performances as never before. What measures do countries and regions take to reinforce their scientific and technological capacities and their strength of innovation ? How can public authorities collaborate better with enterprises in order to create, diffuse and exploit knowledge in all sectors of an economy that is more and more world-wide and competitive? Questions and numerous challenges
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 9 Contents 1.Definitions 2.Alsace key figures and context -Map -Alsace key figures 3. Alsace innovation policy - Framework - Actors - Challenges - Questions and recommendations 4.Conclusions 5.Bibliography
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 10 Some examples of instruments in Alsace for the support, awareness and the development of SMEs towards innovation How has Alsace faced these challenges
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 11 Alsace : geographical context and its borders for proximity cooperation
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 12 ALSACE key figures GENERAL Surface area : 8280 Km² Population Total in 2002 : 1768 079 inhabitants Density : 209 h /km² GDP in 2002:3% of GDP of France GDP 44 268 M euros GDP by inhabitant: 24 804 E Employment: segmentation -Agriculture 1% -Industry 25% (7 industrial jobs out of 10 are within groups who have their headquarters outside Alsace) -Construction 6% -Tertiary 68 % Unemployment: Highest increase in France: rate 5,3% beginning 2001 to 8,5% end 2004 (French average 9,9%) EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 5,7 ME budget 2004 65000 students 4 universities 70 training courses for higher level technicians 32 university and technological diplomas 9 engineering schools 6,7 M Euros budget 2004 3rd French scientific pole 3000 engineers 2200 researchers 126 research centres 2500 PhD students Alsace SMES RCS : 45 000 (<250 employees)
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 13 The R&D of enterprises in the French Regions in 2000
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 14 Contents 1.Definitions 2.Alsace key figures and context 3. Alsace innovation policy - Framework - Actors - Challenges - Questions and recommendations 4.Conclusions 5.Bibliography
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 15 Five action lines for a regional policy that develops innovation 1.Bring closer together research and enterprises in order to favour public- private partnerships 2.Develop the transfer of knowledge and competences through facilitating the insertion of graduates into enterprises 3. Support the structures transferring the technologies through helping the CRITT (Centres régionaux dinnovation et de transfert téchnologique) and PFT (Plate-Formes technologiques) 4. Create an environment favouring innovation through developing technological help networks 5. Favour the creation of innovative enterprises with expertise and support for the project holders Alsace regional policy
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 16 Incubators & Business Centres SEMIA ADEC Site … IEEPI & CEIPI 2 competitive poles: « Therapeutic Innovations » « vehicle of the future » Technopole de Mulhouse Parc dinnovation dIllkirch BioPôle Colmar Campus UHA Technical & Scientific Infrastructures Alsace Technologie BioValleys ASTRID ICONOVAL 6 CRITTs Centres de transfert de technologies 6 PFT Plateformes Technologiques ULP Industrie Centre for university development … Support structures STATE OSEO-ANVAR DRRT DRIRE Alsace Regional Council County Councils Local authorities of proximity Financers RTA Réseau technologique dalsace CEEI Rhénaphotonics Association Pôle dextrusion dAlsace Réseau OCRE CCI CRCI … Networks & Prof. associations Among the main actors in Alsace Project holders Belonging to the public sector 250 laboratories Universities CNRS INSERM ENGEES & the private sector the SME Structures : FORENAP IRCAD Pôle textile Pôle Vignes & vins de INRA …
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 17 Incubators& Business centres SEMIA ADEC Site … IEEPI &CEIPI 2 competitive poles: « Therapeutic Innovations» « vehicle of the future » Technopole de Mulhouse Parc dinnovation dIllkirch BioPôle Colmar Campus UHA … Technical & Scientific Infrastructures Alsace Technologie BioValleys ASTRID ICONOVAL 6 CRITTs Centres de transfert de technologies 6 PFT Plateformes Technologiques ULP Industrie Centre for university development … Support Structures STATE OSEO-ANVAR DRRT DRIRE Alsace Regional Council County councils Local authorities of proximity Financers RTA Réseau technologique dalsace CEEI Rhénaphotonics Association Pôle dextrusion dAlsace Centre relais Innovation Réseau OCRE CCI /CRCI … Networks & Prof. associations Some actors in Alsace Project holders Belonging to the public sector 250 laboratories Universities CNRS INSERM ENGEES & the private sector the SMEs Structures : FORENAP IRCAD Pôle textile Pôle Vignes & vins de INRA …
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 18 Director : Carmen MULLER-REITHLER Parc dInnovation 9, Bld G. dAndernach F67400 Illkirch Tel : +33-3 88 65 54 68 Staff: 7 persons Association created in: 1995 Its mission : Favour the transfer of technology towards enterprises through developing the relations between the technical centres, the public or semi-public research laboratories and the regional enterprises. Its resources A team of engineers, the «Technological development advisers » The implementation of financial grants: CORTECHS and PRISME A federative network of competences: the Réseau Technologique dAlsace (RTA) Its activities: Support SME in implementing their development projects, in integrating the technological dimension into their development strategy, to express their associated requests and needs, to mobilise public and private centres of competence that can most adequately respond to their needs Its tools: Directory of competences, Extranet: CATALISE, Training courses, Technological forums Financial grants : PTR Technological network services … For more information www.alsace-technologie.fr Alsace Technologie www.alsace-technologie.org
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 19 RTA: réseau technologique dAlsace http://www.rdt-alsace.org/ 76 Members – 25 Organs coordinated by Alsace Technologie http://www.rdt-france.org/
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 20 AERIAL Multi-sectoral applications of ionisation and improvement of physical- chemical properties of materials Lyophilisation techniques Illkirch CETIM CERMAT Metallic and alloy materials Synthetic materials Mulhouse CRITT MATERIAUX Characterisation of materials (glass, ceramics,..) polymers Schiltigheim HOLO3 Vibratory analysis Constraint measurements Dimensional measurements St Louis IREPA LASER Industrial laser demonstration (cutting, soldering marking, cleaning… Illkirch RITTMO Fertilisation of organic matters Advice and agriculture sector services 6 CRITT: regional centres for innovation & technology transfer
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 21 CRITT: AERIAL www.aerial-crt.com AERIAL Multi-sectoral applications for ionisation and improvement of physical- chemical properties of materials Lyophilisation techniques Illkirch Director : Alain Strasser Centre de Ressources Technologiques rue Laurent Fries - Parc d'Innovation 67400 Illkirch Staff: 17 persons Association created in: 1985 Its mission Applied research on the theme of the ionisation of food Multi-sectorial applications for ionisation Studies and technical assistance for the agro-food industry Lyophilisation for bio-industries Its resources - Laboratory of microbiology - Laboratory of physical-chemistry - Laboratory of Sensorial analysis - An ionisation experimental station equipped with an electron accelerator and x-ray source - Laboratory of dosimetry - Laboratory for experimental lyophilisation: thermal analysis, lyophilisation pilots, In order to meet the most diverse industrial requests, Aérial is equipped with high performance analytical tools in its different laboratories (dosimetry, microbiology, physical-chemistry, sensorial analysis, lyophilisation), as well as an experimental station.
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 22 Director : Alain CARBONI Département ULP-Industrie 11 rue Silbermann F-67070 Strasbourg Cedex Tél. +33 3 90 41 17 61 Vice President enterprise relations and development Alain BERETZ http://www-ulp.u-strasbg.fr and http://www-ulp.u-strasbg.fr/relations-industrielles/index.php ULP Industrie development centre of the University Louis Pasteur Université Louis Pasteur Overall budget 2005: 191,4 millions euros Students: more than 18 000 Staff: more than 2 888 ( of which 1400 researchers and 1100 technical engineers ) Research centres: 71 Research contracts: more than 300/year for 12 M E ( 30 % in the private sector, 27 % in the public sector and 43 % european contracts) Real-estate: 100 buildings > 400 000 m2 (ranked 1st university outside Paris and 3rd French university in the Shanghai University 2004 ranking) ULP INDUSTRIE Strong collaboration with the major research organs: CNRS, INSERM, INRA with an interdisciplinary logic A driving force for the economy: 19 major patents filed in their own name or in joint-ownership 1 Service for industrial and commercial activities (SAIC) 1 subsidiary: The Centre for Analysis and Research (CAR) 45 start-up created in 15 years,leading to more than 800 jobs in the enterprise incubator SEMIA
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 23 6 PFT Technological platforms HAGUENAU High speed industrial automation and manufacturing ST LOUIS Metrology OBERNAI Hydraulics SAVERNE Plastics MULHOUSE Textile REICHHOFFEN Crash test Railway material These platforms are intended to strengthen the links education – enterprises Through using on a local level national education resources in order to benefit the fabric of regional SMEs.
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 24 The main task of ADEC is to contribute to the attractiveness of the Lower Rhine area not only through participating in the development of ICT activities and stimulating local excellence, but also through the benchmarking and implementation of these new technologies. ADECs missions focus on the following activities: Coordination of the La Walck site and the development of economic activities linked to ICT in the Lower Rhine area, (prospecting to enterprises, support to young companies…), Constitution and management of business cluster from the ADEC site Participation in European projects, linked to ICT, and also give support in project development and in the constitution of European networks driven by Lower Rhine actors, Technological foresight and the diffusion of technologies for the benefit of the local economic area. ADEC: Association pour le Développement des Entreprises et des Compétences Director: Catherine Ledig Site ADEC 37 rue dEngwiller F 67350 LA WALCK www.adec.fr Association created in 1993
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 25 La Grappe dAffaires 25 Conseil, accompagnement intégration Arias Associates P&I RTA Conseil Corteam IPI Sw Conseil Aw Conseil Omni partners Me Bouvier Me Hassler Me Begeot Sudefi Avocat IDF F. Muller Juridique Output Group Afilex France ACE Commerce Sudefi JCG assurance Novovitae Galerie Dumont Aproxys Evaloys Haussmann assureur Finances, patrimoine, intangibles Édition de logiciels Kaluun Advensis ULP multimédia Myde IP Anto Cabinet Charpilloz Actais Administration Comptabilité Info Projet DLF Formation GIP FCIP Formation Uniwealth Unicréa UniEst Communication Marketing Adelis Abas France AirBox CDM Regesta Info technique Alogia Thor Kaliasis Keep Links Activis AVS Group Agilis Systèmes dinformation, TIC, plates-formes techniques ADEC business cluster
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 26 Competitive poles: the pole «Therapeutic innovations » Competitive poles are networks of actors (enterprises, research laboratories, training centres) brought together around common R&D projects within a defined geographic zone. The pole «Therapeutic Innovations » relies on world-wide competitive research and a strong industrial fabric of 300 enterprises and 27 000 jobs. The original strategy of the pole is built on the acceleration of innovation: the young enterprises of the pole are in good health because they benefit in Alsace from the complete chain of innovation. Two projects illustrate this theme « Future therapies » : The first, under the patronage of the professors Pierre CHAMBON and Jean-Marie LEHN, is called « from chemistry and genetics to drugs» and is in particular interested in the research for innovative molecules for the pharmaceutical industry, The second one, under the patronage of the professor Jacques MARESCAUX, is concerned with « innovative tools for medicine » and in particular looks at the technological part of medical innovation. Alsace BioValley – Sylvie DEBRA Parc dInnovation 9, bd Gonthier dAndernach 67400 Illkirch Tel. : 0390403000 www.alsace-biovalley.com/dn_pole_competitivite
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 27 The competitive pole « vehicles of the future » Its assets Training: Nearly 200 higher education training courses linked to the theme of the pole Public research: 26 public research teams 4 universities including ULP 7 engineering schools INEVA/CNRT Private R&D: 1st region, outside Ile-de-France, for private R&D (Source : OST) 445 millions private automobile R&D 6100 persons employed in R&D Presence of the largest automobile development centre outside Ile-de- France Industrial basin : 3 constructors/ 58 equipment providers 400 supplier enterprises 90.000 employees that is 21% of the staff count for automobile in France. 1 million vehicles produced. The themes Clean vehicles, respecting the environment, New energies, recycling possibilities Intelligent vehicles and intelligent networks Excellence of the branch www.vehiculedufutur.com
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 28 Inventory A point of view: An alarming general state of affairs A continuous degradation of the job market The crisis of traditional manufacturing industries continues. The industrial jumpstart of the regional economy can only come about through strong investment in innovation and the development of research for all categories of enterprise And an opening up of Alsace to others A weakness in the integration of ICT in the Alsatian SMEs However Strong public research but a deficit of private research Industrial research is more an activity of smaller enterprises (compared to nationally) Will Alsace be part of those territories that excel (based on knowledge) that the EU so dearly wishes? Source: Jean Alain Héraud Forum de lÉconomie Alsacienne The needs More exchanges and inter-enterprise collaboration More collaboration in order to innovate within the framework of local public-private partnerships Reinforce Alsace attractiveness for international brain power Commercialisation of a technology or innovative product needs to be learned.
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 29 Actions Actions and tools that favour innovation The Alsace Region launched last October « economic workshops », places for debate and reflection on the development of the economic and industrial potential. Complementary to the economic prospective approach PETRA (Prospective Economique Territoriale en Région Alsace) which privileges an approach by branch, The « economic workshops » have as their objective to bring forward concrete proposals, through the federation of those actors the most directly concerned. Four themes have been retained : Transfer, takeover and help for the creation of enterprises; Innovation, development and technology transfer; Creation of service activities for enterprises; Sustainable development and regional economic development.
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 30 Several actions and tools that favour innovation Tools: convergence of financial grant; CRA Conseil Régional Alsace, DRRT Délégation régionale pour la recherche et la technologie, Anvar Agence Nationale pour la Valorisation de la Recherche and associated partners Enterprise creation is at the heart of innovation: Grants linked to the act of enterprise creation/takeover to employment ADIE,PFIL, Alsace création, Alsace Entreprendre, Seed funds, AIRFI Creation of a FCPR (Fonds communs de placement à risque) and a FIP (Proximity investment fund) Instrument for development participation loans and reinforcement of guarantee funds SOFARIS, concluded by the Region with the SME Development bank (BDPME), offered in all banks, Regional Initial Financing Funds (FRFI), Grants for employment ATI@,,jobs linked to ICT Grants CORTECHS, PRISME, post-Phd research (since 1998 more than 12- Cortechs and 110 Prisme have been financed) CIFRE Industrial training convention for research Favourable tax incentives JEI Young innovative enterprises tax relief Research tax credits AFPTI Grant for international technological partnership feasibility (ANVAR) PTR Prestation Technologique Réseau: grant for a first approach to research and technological innovation (AT)
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 31 Recommendations following the Workshops held between Oct 2004 and Feb 2005 Innovation, development and technology transfer How to improve the innovation chain which links research and enterprise ? Action 1: launch a regional project call « research and development » not only for the public laboratories but also for private enterprises Action 2: diffuse knowledge about intellectual property Action 3: create a cell of demonstrators through the launching of a project call for laboratories. Action 4: coordinate the existing technological platforms and create new ones Action 5: train and encourage the employment of technology marketing engineers in the laboratories. Action 6: create a development prize. Action 7: create and coordinate a regional development club
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 32 Reinforcement of current instruments How to improve the innovation chain which links research and enterprise ? - How to ensure the continuation of investment effort of structures with a technological offer? - Is it not necessary to improve the readability of the technological offer for SME through supporting the communication of the CRITT, by paper and on-line documents and by events? - How to reinforce the insertion of the CRITT within networks? - Within the context of the Bologna process reforms, how to build a high level technological training offer by reinforcing the professional and continuous training offers, via the universities, the engineering schools and the CRITT… ? - How to fit the diffusion of economic intelligence practices into the centre of SME innovation strategies? - How to structure better the technological offer on a cross-border basis, even European, within the perspective of the 7th Framework Programme? - How to reinforce the links between the technological networks and the universities, engineering schools, and the high schools via the PFT and the future competitive poles?
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 33 Areas to be investigated How to improve the innovation chain which links research and enterprise ? - How to develop competences in technological project management? - How to structure a training offer for innovation, intellectual property and marketing of technologies? - What means are needed to reinforce the financing of seed capital? - How to support the diffusion of economic intelligence, knowledge management and technological foresight? - Can we follow the German example and develop partnerships with innovation actors on the other side of the Rhine: institutes Fraunhofer, foundations … ? - Is it necessary to reinforce Practical Science for Engineers (SPI) in Alsace and the networking of engineering schools? - Is it necessary to engage ourselves on the path of technological campuses?
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 34 Contents 1.Definitions 2.Alsace key figures and context 3. Alsace innovation policy - Framework - Actors - Challenges - Questions and recommendations 4.Conclusions 5.Bibliography
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 35 Conclusions: what we need to create a innovative environment For SMES we can observe that : Often innovative projects are left to one side, or are seriously delayed Or there are no projects at all Because for them the main obstacle is economic; they have difficulties raising finances and they have a lack of qualified staff And they must be more attractive for international high flyers The role of the public partners is to encourage and to stimulate the region to create an innovative environment In order - to develop and reinforce external collaboration of the SMES with their usual partners with their customers with their competitors and with the universities and public research organisations -
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 36 Conclusions: what we need to create a innovative environment -to allow SMES to invest up to 13% of their added value in internal R&D expenditure - to manage better the access to innovation grants at the regional, national, European level and make them work coherently together. - to foster and promote work in clusters and networks to get faster innovation - to help SMEs prepare their participation in the 7th Framework Programme especially the CIP ( Competitiveness and Innovation Programme ) from 2007 to 2013 and the programme EIP: Entrepreneurship and Innovation Programme
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 37 Conclusions: what we need to create a innovative environment To achieve and structure this: It is necessary to build a clear, simple and efficient roadmap of innovation in Alsace to elaborate an action plan with indicators of success and failure to create a one stop shop for innovation for smes to establish a regional observatory built on international and national indicators to benchmark the regional innovative activities And make regular evaluation of public regional policy to allow quick and reactive adaptations Because political time and issues and innovation and economic timeare not easy to fit and coordinate together.
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 38 Contents 1.Definitions 2.Alsace key figures and context 3. Alsace innovation policy - Framework - Actors - Challenges - Questions and recommendations 4.Conclusions 5.Bibliography
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 39 Oslo Manuel /Eurostat 1997 Proposed guidelines for collecting and interpreting Technological innovation data OCDE Comparing the innovation Performance in Canadian french ans german manufacturing Enterprises Pierre Mohren Pierre Therrien 2005-02_ MERIT STI Outlook 2004 policy questionnaire OECD (OECD Information technology outlook 2004) Indicateurs des sciences et technologies OST 2004 Ed Economica Tableau de bord de lInnovation en France n°13 juillet 2005 sessi Annual competitiveness report 2005 (National competitiveness council of Ireland) FORFAS Investment in ICT research Comparative study, Idate 2002 « I 2010 ne société de linformation pour la croissance et lemploi » COM 2005 229 final The european Innovation score board 2002 (EIS) The Enterprises policy scoreboard EITO 2005 European Information Technology observatory Promoting Entreprenership and innovative SMES in global economy OECD june 2004 Benchmarking countries in the knowledge economy World Bank Institute 2004 Bibliography 1)
© Catherine LEDIG firstname.lastname@example.org www.adec.fr 40 Bibliography 2) www.cordis/lu www.cordis/lu/innovation www.europa.eu.int www.cordis.lu/innovation-smes/src/innobarometer2004.htm http://trendchart.cordis.lu/annualreports/reports/report2004/ www.gate2growth.com http://irc.cordis.lu www.ueapme.com http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/enterprise_policy/cip/index_fr.htm www.oecd.org www.02.imd.ch/wcc/yearbook/ www.idate.fr www.minefi.gouv.fr www.oseo.fr www.cr-alsace.fr
© Catherine LEDIG email@example.com www.adec.fr 41 Annex 1: Stagnation of European R&D juillet 2005 The European Commission presents a new publication on Europes position in research and innovation. The Key figures 2005 for science, technology and innovation show worrying trends in R&D investment and innovation in Europe. The growth rate of R&D intensity (R&D expenditure as % of GDP) has been declining since 2000 and is now close to zero. One of the reasons for this has been a slow-down in business funding of R&D. Europe devotes a much lower share of its wealth to R&D than the US and Japan (1.93% of GDP in the EU in 2003, as compared to 2.59% in the US and 3.15% in Japan). While China has lower R&D intensity (1.31% of GDP in 2003) it grew at about 10% per year between 1997 and 2002. If these trends in the EU and China continue, China will be spending the same amount of GDP on research as the EU in 2010 – about 2.2%. Europe is on track to miss the objective it set itself to boost spending on R&D from 1,9 to 3% by 2010.
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