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Reshaping Economic Geography. 2 Tokyothe biggest city in the world 35 million out of 120 million Japanese, packed into 4 percent of Japans land area USAthe.

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Presentation on theme: "Reshaping Economic Geography. 2 Tokyothe biggest city in the world 35 million out of 120 million Japanese, packed into 4 percent of Japans land area USAthe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reshaping Economic Geography

2 2 Tokyothe biggest city in the world 35 million out of 120 million Japanese, packed into 4 percent of Japans land area USAthe most mobile country More than 35 million out of 300 million changed residence in 2006; 8 million people changed states West Europethe most integrated continent About 35 percent of its GDP is traded, almost two thirds within the region Three Prosperous Places

3 3 Crowded cities Tokyos trains have been moving 8 million people every day

4 4 Packing in the subways Tokyos trainpackers crush commuters into metrorail carriages

5 5 And piling up wealth the fruits of proximity Japans economic mass is concentrated in the Tokyo-Yokohama area

6 6 In Belgium, too The economic landscape is bumpy, even in a small, developed, Western European nation

7 7 Going home for the holidays Planes in the air on the Tuesday before Thanksgiving in the US

8 8 Going home for the holidays? Stranded by storms before the Thanksgiving weekend

9 9 Why Americans put up with the pain of moving Economic mass is concentrated in a few parts of a big country

10 10 Specializing and trading in Western Europe Airbus parts are made, moved, and assembled all over Western Europe

11 11 Loading and moving the fruits of specialization Airbus parts are made, moved, and assembled all over Western Europe

12 12 Made possible by common institutions Growing institutional integration in Western Europe

13 13 Made possible by a slow and painful integration Thin borders in Europe, thick in Africa

14 14 The result? The US, EU-15, and Japan cover much of the economic globe

15 15 Three prospering places Mumbaithe most densely populated city About 30,000 people per sq. km.; already twice the population density of Seoul, Shanghai, and Bogotá Chinathe most mobile developing country 60 million migrant workers traveled from home on the last day of Chinese New Year holidays in million travelers were stranded due to snow storms days before Chinese New Year in 2008 Southeast Asiathe most rapidly integrating developing region Trade is a big part of GDP More than 25 percent of its trade is within Southeast Asia; more than 50 percent if Northeast Asia is included

16 16 Stuffed trains in Mumbai Mumbais trains move millions every day

17 17 Trainpackers needed People die every day on Mumbais trains

18 18 China: Millions of workers migrated during the 1990s

19 19 Going home in China Guangzhou railway station during Chinese New Year, 2008

20 20 Specialization and trade in East and Southeast Asia Computer parts are made and assembled all over East Asia

21 21 Not just computers vigorous trade flows in East Asia Vigorous trade flows in East Asia, anchored by China and Japan

22 22 The result? China, India and Southeast Asia can again be recognized on a map of the worlds economic geography

23 23 Geographic transformations needed for progress Higher Densities No country has grown to high income without urbanizing Shorter Distances Growth seldom comes without the need to move closer to density Fewer Divisions Growth seldom comes to a place that is isolated from others

24 24 Report structure The report can be read by part or by policy

25 25 Geographic scales The report examines policy issues at the local, national and international geographic scales

26 26 Policy concerns at each geographic scale Local: Concentration of people in cities will outstrip concentration of economic mass A billion people in slums National: Spatial disparities in living standards will widen as economic mass concentrates in leading provinces A billion people in remote and lagging areas International: Poor people will be trapped in isolated countries that are not developing The new third world: the Bottom Billion

27 27 WDR 2009 messages Growth will be unbalanced –Trying to spread out economic production amounts to fighting the forces of economic growth Development can still be inclusive –Persistent spatial disparities in basic living standards are neither desirable nor inevitable How to get both unbalanced growth and inclusive development? Economic integration –Changing debates on urbanization, regional development, and global integration from spatial targeting to spatial integration

28 28 Policy makers think about spatial targeting first, and most Common institutions and connective infrastructure are the most potent instruments for economic integration

29 29 Incipient, intermediate and advanced urbanization present different policy challenges Locally, as urbanization advances, the dimensions of the integration challenge increase Encouraging density in Popayan, Colombia Encouraging density and reducing distance in Bucaramanga, Colombia Encouraging density, reducing distance, and lowering divisions around Bogota, Colombia Orange areas denote urban settlementsPopayan, Bucaramanga, and Bogota

30 30 Areas of incipient, intermediate and advanced urbanization serve different market needs Human settlements do different things Popayan, Colombia Bucaramanga, Colombia Bogota, Colombia 1.Towns facilitate internal scale economies 2.Cities encourage localization economies 3.Metropolises generate urbanization economies

31 Calibrating urbanization policies A simple framework for tailoring urbanization policies to the economic geography of places

32 32 1DChina: Lagging areas have high poverty rates, but leading areas have most of the poor Nationally, the dimensioneconomic distance; the instrumentinstitutions that unify

33 33 2DBrazil: Lagging areas have high poverty rates and many of the poor The dimensionslong distances and misplaced densities; the instruments institutions, and infrastructure to connect leading and lagging places

34 34 3DIndia, lagging areas have high poverty rates and a big share of the poor The dimensionslong distances, misplaced densities, and domestic divisions; the instrumentsinstitutions, infrastructure, and incentives that target

35 35 Economic density in Poland The economic landscape is bumpy in Eastern Europe

36 36 Poverty mass and incidence in Poland The dimensionlong distances; the instrumentunifying institutions

37 37 Migrationthe great equalizer of income levels, not economic mass Massive movements from East to West, rapid equalization of per capita income

38 38 Taxationanother equalizer of income levels, but not economic mass Massive movements from East to West, rapid equalization of per capita income

39 39 Calibrating territorial development policies A simple framework for tailoring territorial development policies to the economic geography of places

40 40 Division impedes market access in the developing world Borders are thicker in Eastern Europe

41 41 Market access helps to classify the developing worlds neighborhoods Market access depends both on geography and governance

42 42 Market access in Eastern Europe is a challenge, but not the most difficult Density, distance, and division can be used to characterize the difficulty of international integration for countries in different regions of the world

43 43 Neighborhoods matter, but so do policies Market access depends both on geography and policies Market access is defined as real market potential, a combination of economic density (GDP mass), distance (physical distance and transport infrastructure), and division (trade and other policies).

44 For EU new member states, the big markets lie in the west 44

45 45 Calibrating international integration policies A simple framework for tailoring international integration policies to the economic geography of places

46 46 What the report proposes Understand the spatial transformations necessary for progress –Higher Densities, shorter Distances, and fewer Divisions Unleash the market forces that promote economic concentration and social convergence –Agglomeration, Migration, and Specialization Calibrate policies to the economic geography of places –Institutions which unifyhelping labor and capital move to opportunity –Infrastructure to connectbut do not expect production to spread out –Interventions that targetbut only where necessary

47 47 The rule of thumb An I for a D A simple framework for tailoring integration policies to the economic geography of places

48 48 For more information


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