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3 RD WORKSHOP ON TESTING THE EQF Building synergies and common understanding The case of sustainable professionalization Cedefop, Thessaloniki, 15-16 December.

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Presentation on theme: "3 RD WORKSHOP ON TESTING THE EQF Building synergies and common understanding The case of sustainable professionalization Cedefop, Thessaloniki, 15-16 December."— Presentation transcript:

1 3 RD WORKSHOP ON TESTING THE EQF Building synergies and common understanding The case of sustainable professionalization Cedefop, Thessaloniki, December 2010 Fabrizio Lamberti

2 Agenda Introduction Selected experiences: a common thread Links with sustainable professionalization The HELEN vision: how to link qualification systems The role of the EQF From HELEN to SESAMO The TIPTOE methodology: semantics and EQF in the trade sector The MATCH project: facilitating social inclusion (job seeking) Heterogeneity and formalization Methodologies to define qualifications From structure to content

3 Selected experiences: a common thread -VET PROFESSIONAL Vocational education training to professionals for an European solid space of collaboration and learning (I/05/B/F/PP ) -EASCMF European automotive sector competence meta-framework - A contribution to the support of compatibilty of a sector related qualification framework with national structures and the EQF ( / ) -HELEN The European learning network (I/04/B/F/NT ) -SESAMO Simulating the implementation and supporting the start-up by exploiting HELEN and BEATRIC semantic models regarding ECVET (LLP-LDV/TOI/2007/IT/188) -ORSA MINORE Organizzazione delle certificazioni con applicazione di smart card nei mestieri e nelle innovazioni del maRE (I/06/B/F/PP ) -TIPTOE Testing and Implementing EQF- and ECVET-Principles in Trade Organizations and Education (NL/08/LLP-LdV/TOI/123011) -MATCH Informal and non-formal competences matching device for migrants' employability and active citizenship ( LLP IT- GRUNDTVIG-GMP)

4 The starting point -VET PROFESSIONAL Vocational education training to professionals for an European solid space of collaboration and learning (I/05/B/F/PP ) -EASCMF European automotive sector competence meta-framework - A contribution to the support of compatibilty of a sector related qualification framework with national structures and the EQF ( / ) -HELEN The European learning network (I/04/B/F/NT ) -SESAMO Simulating the implementation and supporting the start-up by exploiting HELEN and BEATRIC semantic models regarding ECVET (LLP-LDV/TOI/2007/IT/188) -ORSA MINORE Organizzazione delle certificazioni con applicazione di smart card nei mestieri e nelle innovazioni del maRE (I/06/B/F/PP ) -TIPTOE Testing and Implementing EQF- and ECVET-Principles in Trade Organizations and Education (NL/08/LLP-LdV/TOI/123011) -MATCH Informal and non-formal competences matching device for migrants' employability and active citizenship ( LLP IT- GRUNDTVIG-GMP)

5 Methodologies to define qualifications Initial experiences built onto the sustainable professionalization approach -by analyzing national profiles, and -by using their core elements as building blocks -reaching an agreement on a methodology -building international profiles or catalogues of qualifications, competences Outcomes -networks with strong stakeholders involvement -methodology and results shared among the consortium -to be regarded as feasible examples to be exploited in other contexts Problems encountered -marked differences between countries and sectors

6 Heterogeneity issues: some examples Italy -Competences: express the concept the learner is able to -Contents: expressed in terms of the learner needs to knows how to, connected to the principles, notions, methods from which the knows how to derives -Descriptors: assessment criteria, based on the concept of the learner should demonstrate to, according to a defined level of difficulty -Fundamental activities, specific activities, indicators, etc. France -Functions: set of individual/enterprise activities, which concur toward a same goal -Vocational activities: set of tasks part of a work process -Vocational tasks: set of elementary operations carried out to come to the prescribed result -Professionnal skills: describe the actions which are carried out concretely in professional situations -Savoir faire, savoir associé, compétence professionnelle/terminale, etc. Even when the same terms are used (e.g. competence), great differences in meaning and connotations exist, but often remain under the surface

7 Evolution -VET PROFESSIONAL Vocational education training to professionals for an European solid space of collaboration and learning (I/05/B/F/PP ) -EASCMF European automotive sector competence meta-framework - A contribution to the support of compatibilty of a sector related qualification framework with national structures and the EQF ( / ) -HELEN The European learning network (I/04/B/F/NT ) -SESAMO Simulating the implementation and supporting the start-up by exploiting HELEN and BEATRIC semantic models regarding ECVET (LLP-LDV/TOI/2007/IT/188) -ORSA MINORE Organizzazione delle certificazioni con applicazione di smart card nei mestieri e nelle innovazioni del maRE (I/06/B/F/PP ) -TIPTOE Testing and Implementing EQF- and ECVET-Principles in Trade Organizations and Education (NL/08/LLP-LdV/TOI/123011) -MATCH Informal and non-formal competences matching device for migrants' employability and active citizenship ( LLP IT- GRUNDTVIG-GMP)

8 Goals of the HELEN network Means to promote interaction among standards of competences Heterogeneity issues addressed from the point of view of semantics Conceptual maps (models, ontologies) Support transparency by -formalizing the structure of national profiles -establishing links between (pairs of) national profiles (meta-ontology) Envisaged application scenarios -supporting mobility through comparability -creating common profiles

9 The HELEN methodology: formalization Analysis of national qualification systems, certification modalities and credit recognition systems -regulations, standards, and frameworks at the national level Identification of study cases and collection of qualification profiles (country-sector perspective) Creation of a knowledge base Construction of the HELEN conceptual maps -Formal/unified/visual modeling language -Lexicon, shared understanding of the domains under analysis, main concepts/relations used in describing qualifications -Mutual trust focus on the meaning of concepts

10 The HELEN methodology: an informal view Indicators Descriptor Content Unit of competence Competence Content Descriptor Indicators is able to needs to know how should demonstrate (to be capable of) (for each competence several descriptors are identified) the indicators are Competence Unit of competence + +

11 HELEN maps (IFTS, Italy)

12 HELEN maps (DESCO/CPC, France)

13 The HELEN methodology: the meta-ontology Definition of linking mechanisms between models Semantic grids -conceptual maps compared to each other (in pairs) to reveal correspondences, similarities and differences between the models Formalization of the linking strategies into ontology-based meta-models -the HELEN linking ontology (formal linking rules) Aim -support mobility and transparency of qualifications by establishing mechanisms for referencing one system to the other at an abstract level, that is, at the model level (i.e. relations between concepts from national-based systems) -model-level links refined by exploiting indications from study cases (enhanced accuracy, evaluation of national profiles with respect to national definitions) Validation through study cases (content) and software platform

14 One-to-one linking rules

15 Dipl ô me Activit é Fonction T â che Comp é tence professionnelle Comp é tence terminale Crit é re D é valuation Savoir faire Conditions de r é alisation Connaissance Savoir associ é Figura professionale nazionale Profilo professionale regionale Attivit à Attivit à fondamentale Attivit à specifica (individuata a livello regionale) Attivit à specifica (individuata a livello di progetto) Unit à capitalizzabile Unit à capitalizzabile di base Unit à capitalizzabile trasversale Unit à capitalizzabile tecnico-professionale Unit à capitalizzabile di profilo Competenza Contenuto Descrittore Indicatore France Italy

16 One-to-one linking rules referencing meanings

17 Validation of the link

18 Indicators Descriptor Content Unit of competence Competence Content Descriptor Indicators is able to needs to know how should demonstrate (to be capable of) (for each competence several descriptors are identified) the indicators are Competence Unit of competence + + Connaissance (notions et concepts) Condition de réalisation Savoir faire Unité constitutive Compétence terminale Savoir faire Condition de réalisation Connaissance (notions et concepts) Critère d'évaluation Compétence professionnelle Savoir associé Limite de connaissance

19 Back to the heterogeneity issues Being addressed through -the creation of national and international professional and educational standards -the creation of a system for credits transfer -the development of specific tools in the context of the Europass portfolio (readability and capitalization of learning achievements and working experience) -the definition of a European framework supporting the comparability of qualifications

20 Evolution of the methodology -VET PROFESSIONAL Vocational education training to professionals for an European solid space of collaboration and learning (I/05/B/F/PP ) -EASCMF European automotive sector competence meta-framework - A contribution to the support of compatibilty of a sector related qualification framework with national structures and the EQF ( / ) -HELEN The European learning network (I/04/B/F/NT ) -SESAMO Simulating the implementation and supporting the start-up by exploiting HELEN and BEATRIC semantic models regarding ECVET (LLP-LDV/TOI/2007/IT/188) -ORSA MINORE Organizzazione delle certificazioni con applicazione di smart card nei mestieri e nelle innovazioni del maRE (I/06/B/F/PP ) -TIPTOE Testing and Implementing EQF- and ECVET-Principles in Trade Organizations and Education (NL/08/LLP-LdV/TOI/123011) -MATCH Informal and non-formal competences matching device for migrants' employability and active citizenship ( LLP IT- GRUNDTVIG-GMP)

21 The SESAMO top-down approach Qualification Learning Outcome Knowledge Factual Theoretical Skill Practical Cognitive Competence Responsibility Authonomy Connaissance (notions et concepts) Condition de réalisation Savoir faire Unité constitutive Compétence terminale Savoir faire Condition de réalisation Connaissance (notions et concepts) Critère d'évaluation Compétence professionnelle Savoir associé Limite de connaissance Indicators Descriptor Content Unit of competence Competence Content Descriptor Indicators Competence Unit of competence + +

22 The SESAMO top-down approach Qualification Learning outcome Knowledge Theoretical Knowledge Factual Skill Cognitive Skill Practical Competence Autonomy Competence Responsibility Figura professionale nazionale Profilo professionale regionale Attivit à Attivit à fondamentale Attivit à specifica (individuata a livello regionale) Attivit à specifica (individuata a livello di progetto) Unit à capitalizzabile Unit à capitalizzabile di base Unit à capitalizzabile trasversale Unit à capitalizzabile tecnico-professionale Unit à capitalizzabile di profilo Competenza Contenuto Descrittore Indicatore EQF Italy

23 SESAMO: the VETLINKS platform

24 Learning outcomes Description approaches -learning outcomes expressed in rather broad or narrow terms -they may refer directly to the professional context, or to a body of knowledge to be assimilated -assessment/performance criteria may be defined in some cases, in others statements are too vague to be used for assessment -in some cases a difference is made between what students should be able to do and what they should know and understand, in others associated knowledge is formulated as a list of items to be addressed in classroom The kinds of "outcomes" defined varies hugely among countries (even two outcome-oriented curricula may look very different) There is room for different interpretations concerning the individual categories of learning outcomes -still a problem of semantics -from structure to content, as content may -help unveil/undertand the underlying structure -play, within a structured framework, an effective harmonization role

25 Shift of the focus: from structure to content Être capable de décrire les produits et leur specificités To be able to provide information about the products Narr kenmerken van het product uit te leggen to provide information about the product to describe products specificities to explain product characteristics

26 Shift of the focus: from structure to content -VET PROFESSIONAL Vocational education training to professionals for an European solid space of collaboration and learning (I/05/B/F/PP ) -EASCMF European automotive sector competence meta-framework - A contribution to the support of compatibilty of a sector related qualification framework with national structures and the EQF ( / ) -HELEN The European learning network (I/04/B/F/NT ) -SESAMO Simulating the implementation and supporting the start-up by exploiting HELEN and BEATRIC semantic models regarding ECVET (LLP-LDV/TOI/2007/IT/188) -ORSA MINORE Organizzazione delle certificazioni con applicazione di smart card nei mestieri e nelle innovazioni del maRE (I/06/B/F/PP ) -TIPTOE Testing and Implementing EQF- and ECVET-Principles in Trade Organizations and Education (NL/08/LLP-LdV/TOI/123011) -MATCH Informal and non-formal competences matching device for migrants' employability and active citizenship ( LLP IT- GRUNDTVIG-GMP)

27 Goals of TIPTOE To research the labour market, in order to define existing trade occupations, define learning outcomes (KSC) and link them to the EQF To develop a map in which trade occupations are linked to EQF To research the VET-offer for the trade sector (including HE), define learning outcomes (KSC) and link them to the EQF To develop a map in which trade education programmes or qualifications are linked to EQF To integrate the two maps in order to make clear the differences between views of the labour market and of the educational field To use the results of the discussion in order to construct a definitive EU-wide EQF-map of the trade sector, containing both occupations and VET-offer and to develop guidelines for the interpretation and application of EQF- and ECVET-terms and principles

28 The TIPTOE maps in action KSC (NL) Profile (NL) KSC (FR) Profile (FR) KSC (IT) Profile (IT) … common elements, differences Occupational dimension KSC (all countries/profiles) Map/s KSC (NL) Profile (NL) KSC (FR) Profile (FR) KSC (IT) Profile (IT) … Educational dimension EU-EQF profile

29 Focus on content

30 The TIPTOE methodology Starting from the profiles collected during the analysis phases Construct an ontology in which concepts are represented by keywords, and concepts are linked by is-a relationships, i.e. taxonomy The taxonomy is made up of three categories of classes -knowledge -action verbs -context K1K1 K 1,1 K 1,2 K 1,1,1 K 1,1,1,1 K 1,1,1,2 K 1,2,1 K 1,3 K 1,3,1 K 1,3,1,1 K 1,3,1,2 K 1,3,2 AV 1 AV 1,1 AV 1,2 AV 1,1,1 AV 1,1,1,1 AV 1,1,1,2 AV 1,2,1 AV 1,3 AV 1,3,1 AV 1,3,1,1 AV 1,3,1,2 CX 1 CX 1,1 CX 1,2 CX 1,2,1 CX 1,3 CX 1,3,1 CX 1,2,1

31 Methodology Each category organizes constituting classes into a tree (why a tree): subsumption, abduction properties The initial taxonomy is enriched (occupation plus education dimensions) Selected classes represent the entire domain of analysis (in both the country and profile perspectives) K1K1 K 1,1 K 1,2 K 1,1,1 K 1,1,1,1 K 1,1,1,2 K 1,2,1 K 1,3 K 1,3,1 K 1,3,1,1 K 1,3,1,2 K 1,3,2 AV 1 AV 1,1 AV 1,2 AV 1,1,1 AV 1,1,1,1 AV 1,1,1,2 AV 1,2,1 AV 1,3 AV 1,3,1 AV 1,3,1,1 AV 1,3,1,2 CX 1 CX 1,1 CX 1,2 CX 1,2,1 CX 1,3 CX 1,3,1 CX 1,2,1

32 Proposed methodology K1K1 K 1,1 K 1,2 K 1,1,1 K 1,1,1,1 K 1,1,1,2 K 1,2,1 K 1,3 K 1,3,1 K 1,3,1,1 K 1,3,1,2 K 1,3,2 AV 1 AV 1,1 AV 1,2 AV 1,1,1 AV 1,1,1,1 AV 1,1,1,2 AV 1,2,1 AV 1,3 AV 1,3,1 AV 1,3,1,1 AV 1,3,1,2 CX 1 CX 1,1 CX 1,2 CX 1,2,1 CX 1,3 CX 1,3,1 CX 1,2,1 To describe a knowledge Just pick one element from the knwoledge tree K knowledge

33 Proposed methodology K1K1 K 1,1 K 1,2 K 1,1,1 K 1,1,1,1 K 1,1,1,2 K 1,2,1 K 1,3 K 1,3,1 K 1,3,1,1 K 1,3,1,2 K 1,3,2 AV 1 AV 1,1 AV 1,2 AV 1,1,1 AV 1,1,1,1 AV 1,1,1,2 AV 1,2,1 AV 1,3 AV 1,3,1 AV 1,3,1,1 AV 1,3,1,2 CX 1 CX 1,1 CX 1,2 CX 1,2,1 CX 1,3 CX 1,3,1 CX 1,2,1 To describe a skill Pick one element from the action verb tree and apply it to one or more elements from the knowledge tree KiKi skill AV i KjKj S

34 Proposed methodology K1K1 K 1,1 K 1,2 K 1,1,1 K 1,1,1,1 K 1,1,1,2 K 1,2,1 K 1,3 K 1,3,1 K 1,3,1,1 K 1,3,1,2 K 1,3,2 AV 1 AV 1,1 AV 1,2 AV 1,1,1 AV 1,1,1,1 AV 1,1,1,2 AV 1,2,1 AV 1,3 AV 1,3,1 AV 1,3,1,1 AV 1,3,1,2 CX 1 CX 1,1 CX 1,2 CX 1,2,1 CX 1,3 CX 1,3,1 CX 1,2,1 To describe a competence Select one or more skills (or, equivalently, select an appropriate number of action verbs applied to knowledge elements), and contextualize it/them KiKi competence AV i KjKj SiSi CX 1 CiCi

35 Describing a profile K1K1 K 1,1 K 1,2 K 1,1,1 K 1,1,1,1 K 1,1,1,2 K 1,2,1 K 1,3 K 1,3,1 K 1,3,1,1 K 1,3,1,2 K 1,3,2 AV 1 AV 1,1 AV 1,2 AV 1,1,1 AV 1,1,1,1 AV 1,1,1,2 AV 1,2,1 AV 1,3 AV 1,3,1 AV 1,3,1,1 AV 1,3,1,2 CX 1 CX 1,1 CX 1,2 CX 1,2,1 CX 1,3 CX 1,3,1 CX 1,2,1 K 1,1,1,1 S1S1 AV 1 K1K1 S2S2 AV 1,1,1 K 1,3 S3S3 AV 1,1,1,2 K 1,3,1,2 C1C1 AV 1,3,1,1 K 1,3,1,2 CX 1,2,1 Profile description Collection of taxonomy elements linked by relationships (ontology)

36 An example from the trade sector Each country defines the KSCs using different descriptions Descriptions can be linked to a set of concepts according to their meaning Être capable de décrire les produits et leur specificités To be able to provide information about the products Narr kenmerken van het product uit te leggen DESCRIBEPRODUCT SPECIFICITIES EXPLAIN PROVIDE INFORMATION PRODUCT CHARACTER.

37 An example from the trade sector PROVIDE INFORMATION Être capable de décrire les produits et leur specificités To be able to provide information about the products Narr kenmerken van het product uit te leggen DESCRIBE EXPLAIN PRODUCT CHARACTER. PRODUCT SPECIFICITIES

38 Exploiting the maps Visual collaborative reasoning to -identify common elements (to feed the EQF-EU profile) -evaluate the distance occupation/education (support guidelines) -overcoming possible ambiguities in the definition of terms Additional applications (platform) -Checking for coverage of KSCs among the various profiles -Comparing profiles, possibly giving a measure of proximity/ordering -Definition of rules for including KSC elements in the EQF-EU profile (tool supporting mutual trust) -Referencing profiles to the EQF

39 Application scenario: EQF level identification EQF LEVEL

40 The TIPTOE platform on the Web

41 Shift of the focus: from structure to content -VET PROFESSIONAL Vocational education training to professionals for an European solid space of collaboration and learning (I/05/B/F/PP ) -EASCMF European automotive sector competence meta-framework - A contribution to the support of compatibilty of a sector related qualification framework with national structures and the EQF ( / ) -HELEN The European learning network (I/04/B/F/NT ) -SESAMO Simulating the implementation and supporting the start-up by exploiting HELEN and BEATRIC semantic models regarding ECVET (LLP-LDV/TOI/2007/IT/188) -ORSA MINORE Organizzazione delle certificazioni con applicazione di smart card nei mestieri e nelle innovazioni del maRE (I/06/B/F/PP ) -TIPTOE Testing and Implementing EQF- and ECVET-Principles in Trade Organizations and Education (NL/08/LLP-LdV/TOI/123011) -MATCH Informal and non-formal competences matching device for migrants' employability and active citizenship ( LLP IT- GRUNDTVIG-GMP)

42 MATCH The goal of MATCH is to make it possible that (facilitator) -when an job seeker draws up his/her curriculum (offer) -this is expressed in a way that is compliant to the way companies/employers have expressed their requirements (demand) -so that the best MATCH between the offer and the demand is automatically found Matchmaking (facilitator) -the problem of matching offers and requests, such as supplies and demands in a marketplace, services and customers in a service agency, etc. To maximize the overlap in matching curricula to labour market demands -information pieces involved in the overall process have to be expressed by means of a common language -limit ambiguities -enable for the automatic management of the matchmaking process, an extremely complex and time consuming optimization task

43 Selected references GATTESCHI V, LAMBERTI F, SANNA A, DEMARTINI C, A ranking tool exploiting semantic descriptions for the comparison of EQF-based qualifications, Journal of Universal Computer Science, accepted for publication LAMBERTI F, SANNA A, DEMARTINI C, A relation-based page rank algorithm for semantic web search engines, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, pp , 2009, Vol. 21:1 DEMARTINI C, BETTIOL S, LAMBERTI F, MALLIA M, SANNA A, The European seaman's smart card: a prototype of a distributed system allowing secure access to a unified representation of maritime records, Proc. 7th International Conference on Telecommunications and Informatics (TELE-INFO'08), Istanbul May, 2008, pp GATTESCHI V, LAMBERTI F, SANNA A, DEMARTINI C, A semantic matchmaking system for job recruitment, Proc 10th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies (I-KNOW2010), Graz 1-3 September 2010, In stampa GATTESCHI V, LAMBERTI F, SANNA A, DEMARTINI C, A semantic-based approach for aligning occupational and educational qualifications in the EQF perspective, Proc. IADIS International Conferences Informatics 2010, Wireless Applications and Computing 2010 and Telecommunications, Networks and Systems 2010, Freiburg (Germany) July 2010, pp GATTESCHI V, LAMBERTI F, SALASSA F, DEMARTINI C, An automatic tool supporting life-long learning based on a semantic-oriented approach for comparing qualifications, Proc. International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age (CELDA 2009), Rome November 2009, pp CUBILLOS C, LAMBERTI F., DEMARTINI C, Integration at vocational education and training level through mapped ontologies, Proc. Third International Conference on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology (ICCIT2008), 2008, pp CUBILLOS C, LAMBERTI F, DEMARTINI C, Integrating European qualification systems with OWL ontologies, Proc. Electronics, Robotics and Automotive Mechanics Conference (CERMA 2007), 2007, pp CUBILLOS C, LAMBERTI F, DEMARTINI C, National qualification systems integration using ontologies, Proc. IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, 2006, pp

44 Conclusion Methodology based on formalization Evolution -supporting comparability by analyzing the structure -exploiting European harmonization means -supporting comparability/understanding of -local approaches -European tools -working on content, and -using a common language for describing it


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