Presentation on theme: "Policy, practice and harnessing future potential Anne-Mari Nevala and Pat Irving, GHK Consulting Ltd."— Presentation transcript:
Policy, practice and harnessing future potential Anne-Mari Nevala and Pat Irving, GHK Consulting Ltd
Study context – entrepreneurship and guidance Contribution to economic growth Economic climate and the need for more entrepreneurial thinking in public, private and third sector spheres Need for new entrepreneurs and improve success rate of existing ones Concept of entrepreneurship education –One of the eight key competences –Activities of DG Enterprise Council resolution on guidance
The role of guidance IVET and HE students Entrepreneurship education Start up support Aspiring and new entrepreneurs Career management
Guidance in the context of the study - Broad framework for support - …any assistance to make occupational, training and education choices and to manage careers… TypeEntrepreneurship agenda FormalTrained professionals working in chambers of commerce, PES, education and training institutions, etc. Non-formal Mentoring and coaching Practical teaching methods, incl real life assignments for companies and mini-companies Online business services such as career assessment tests for entrepreneurs Business incubators (guidance and other soft support) Holistic business start up support (esp disadvantaged groups) Engaging with entrepreneurs through lectures, work placements and visits Entrepreneurship centres Awareness raising activities Private sector interventions InformalNetworks of entrepreneurs and other peer learning opportunities
Focus Broad topic: 3 sectors Goal to provide practical illustrations of the role of guidance Not a formal evaluation –The role of recommendations Method Literature review Two surveys –Telephone survey: entrepreneurship education experts (IVET, HE and associations of entrepreneurs) –Online survey: policy makers and practitioners with a guidance remit 26 case studies: in-depth and composite cases
Higher education Diversity between and within countries in Europe Some of the most innovative and successful guidance based interventions found from the HE sector The potential role of guidance in the entrepreneurship agenda of HEIs is four-fold: 1.Using guidance to engage students in entrepreneurship education 2.Guidance embedded in entrepreneurship education 3.Extra-curricular activities to encourage entrepreneurial activity in students 4.Start up support
HIGHER EDUCATION 1. Using guidance to engage students in entrepreneurship education Mainstream information-dissemination channels still used (i.e. prospectuses, open days, etc.) However, more innovative, student centred approaches showing significant signs of success. For example –Integrating enterprise and careers services under one roof (e.g. in Newcastle university increased the number of student numbers taking part in entrepreneurship education) –Student ambassadors (e.g. former participants of the Norwegian Entrepreneurship programme involve up to 70-80% of new participants) –Student led entrepreneur clubs (e.g. Entrepreneurs club at the University of Navarra, ES, successfully utilises a range of new media channels to involve HE students)
HIGHER EDUCATION 2. Guidance embedded in entrepreneurship education Practical learning opps and the involvement of real entrepreneurs in the entrepreneurship education process allow students to become active participants in an entrepreneurial career exploration process For example –Practical assignments for companies increasingly common (e.g. Hec-Ulg Entrepreneurs programme, BE, involves existing entrepreneurs in a systematic manner as mentors and assessors and for placements) –Internships particularly successful in start up companies (e.g. Norwegian Entrepreneurship programmes involves a compulsory placement in a new start up company) –Fully entrepreneurial delivery model (e.g. Laurea university of applied sciences, FI, requires students to work in teams to run assignments for local entrepreneurs)
HIGHER EDUCATION 3. Extra-curricular activities to encourage entrepreneurial activity in students The goal of demystify the start-up world, raise awareness of entrepreneurship as a career choice and build entrepreneurial confidence For example –Business plan / idea competitions increasingly common –Building self-confidence (e.g. The Enterprisers programme at the Cambridge University seeks to build self-efficacy of students) –Networks of student entrepreneurs provide an opportunity to share experiences and build economies of scale for the provision of training (e.g. Alumni Entrepreneur Club at the Stockholm School of Economics in Riga and Entrepreneur club at University of Navarra)
HIGHER EDUCATION 4. Start up support Universities are breeding grounds for high tech and high growth businesses Guidance orientated start up support provided, for example, by: –Start up advisors employed by universities (e.g. the careers service of Newcastle Univ employs start up advisers to help with initial enquiries, experienced business advisors and Entrepreneurs in Residence – successful entrepreneurs) –Business incubators (practical, scientific and soft support) –Mentoring and business coaching – relatively rare still but good examples for example at the Stockholm School of Economics in Latvia
HIGHER EDUCATION Overall assessment Many innovative examples of entrepreneurial activities in which guidance is embedded Guidance can support entrepreneurial goals of HEIs during various stages of students life in HE, from recruitment to the delivery of enterprise education and start up support Particularly successful when careers services and enterprise support services are integrated (Newcastle model) Also need to move towards interdisciplinary approach to enterprise education –Queens University Belfast excellent example of an entrepreneurial approach – enterprise education embedded in the curriculum for all students Financial shortcomings hindering entrepreneurial aspirations of HEIs esp in many Eastern European MS, but with the budget cuts affecting HEIs in most countries
INITIAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING Introduction When compared to the HE sector: –Fewer innovative approaches were identified (greater focus on mini and virtual companies) –Formal guidance services play a less visible role in the entrepreneurship agenda – non-formal guidance methods utilised more However, guidance orientated enterprise activities in IVET –Help to engage young people in creative thinking –Familiarise with enterprising attitudes and behavior –Start equipping young people with core entrepreneurial skills and to the career exploration process
INITIAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING Examples of good practice – Involvement of entrepreneurs Involving SMEs in work placement schemes (e.g. Enterprise Encounter programme in Ireland organises placements in collaboration with an orgnaisation representing micro businesses) Role model programmes successful, esp with lower attaining groups of students (e.g. Dynamo Role model programme in Wales recruits entrepreneurs to give lectures to students – are paid a modest fee for the service) Entrepreneurs involved in career guidance events (e.g. Guidance night organised in France by the chambers of commerce – provide opportunity for student take part intrade dating with entrepreneurs)
INITIAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING Examples of good practice – Enterprise familiarisation activities Guidance embedded in these practical activities Innovation camps – 24hr business workshop involving assignments for companies are proving success across Europe –Companies keen get involved as long as assignments are practical (not too theoretical) Business simulation activities (mini and virtual companies) –Evaluation suggest that mini company alumni twice more likely to set up their own business than non-alumni
INITIAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING Lessons Entrepreneurship agenda particularly pertinent for VET schools (many fields have high proportions of self-employed) Guidance practitioners in IVET lack experience and training in dealing with entrepreneurship –Consequently the role of formal careers services in IVET is fairly marginal (ad hoc and mainly supportive) –Non-formal methods more widely used Role model approaches underpin many successful guidance based interventions Innovation camps and other high profile activities are great for raising awareness but should not replace the in depth experience association with mini-company approaches Important to capitalise on young peoples interest in blue and green entrepreneurship
CAREER MANAGEMENT OF ASPIRING AND NEW ENTREPRENEURS Overview Each entrepreneurs has skills, competences, strengths and weaknesses that are unique to them Career management skills can help to survive and succeed in business world, e.g. –Help to identify strengths and weaknesses and how to address weaknesses –Improve ability to take charge of their own career Tools to improve career management skills of entrepreneurs: –Mentoring –Information, advice and coaching, including TV and other awareness raising channels and networks –Online tools such as career assessment tests –Specific measures for under-represented and disadvantaged groups (presentation in working group 2)
CAREER MANAGEMENT OF ASPIRING AND NEW ENTREPRENEURS Example of good practice - Mentoring Between experienced and novice/aspiring entrepreneur Very positive feedback However, the only, significant national programme in Europe can be found in Sweden – involving 1000 mentors and mentees each year (see presentation in working group 2) Important to tap into the willingness of experience and retired entrepreneurs to volunteer their time as mentors (demonstrated by the Swedish example) Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs at European level Online mentoring services help many but do not replace the human element associated with other mentoring programmes
CONCLUSIONS Not everyone needs to become an entrepreneur, yet all members of the society should become more entrepreneurial Important to familiarise children early on to entrepreneurial principles and thinking Business involvement in entrepreneurial support activities still patchy and unstructured – however there is interest from the private sector to be more involved (e.g. Frech Guidance nights, successful entrepreneurs volunteering their time as mentors) –Resources needed to identifying and engaging businesses and entrepreneurs in enterprise support initiatives –Non-gov organisations also play an important role
RECOMMENDATIONS Policy framework guidance related to entrepreneurship should promote: –Entrepreneurship as a career option for all, to facilitate diversification in the population of entrepreneurs; –Entrepreneurship as a mandatory element of the career guidance offer at all levels, for all pupils and students, in all types of education and training; –A progressive and coordinated curricula for entrepreneurship education, where basic skills are developed in primary and lower secondary education and are further developed through upper secondary, IVET and HE which is then taken forward by individuals as they enter working life; and –Training for career guidance professionals (and other education and training professionals) to ensure they are equipped to support individuals acquire entrepreneurial skills / competences.
RECOMMENDATIONS Appropriate media needs to be used to promote entrepreneurship to students and workers interested in establishing their own businesses. Guidance practitioners and education and training professionals need to ensure that individuals interested in entrepreneurship have access to credible role models and possible mentors, hence links need to be established with appropriate business people: former students, local entrepreneurs etc. Entrepreneurship guidance and learning cannot operate in a vacuum: it has to be intrinsically linked to the employment and enterprise development policy agendas To support this policy agenda, there is a need for a strong evidence base: such evidence is necessary to affect change and demonstrate how and why different approaches work, for whom and in which education, training or employment contexts.
Contact details Anne-Mari Nevala Anneemail@example.com Pat Irving Pat.Irving@ghkint.com
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