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Inclusion, the key to prosperity. The dynamics of migration, poverty and social exclusion ( European Commission, Praxis and the Joseph Rowntree Foundation)

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Presentation on theme: "Inclusion, the key to prosperity. The dynamics of migration, poverty and social exclusion ( European Commission, Praxis and the Joseph Rowntree Foundation)"— Presentation transcript:


2 Inclusion, the key to prosperity. The dynamics of migration, poverty and social exclusion ( European Commission, Praxis and the Joseph Rowntree Foundation) Migration and the journey to integration and community development Michael Keith, 17 th November 2010.

3 Migration and the journey to integration and community development 1.Introduction. Global context: the scale of 21 st century migrant mobility and anti migration sentiment 2.UK migration trends and the British experience of cohesion and integration 3.The scale of the national and its limitations 4.Thinking about policy in relation to integration of migrants? 5.Mechanisms to facilitate a positive experience of migration: a)Lessons from past policy intervention in relation to migrants: b)Principles into practice


5 Anti migration sentiment and a crisis of national identity? Sarkozys French identity debate Browns Britishness Thilo Sarazins book Deutschland Schafft Sich Ab (Germany is Doing Away With Itself) "This (multicultural) approach has failed, utterly failed," Merkel told the meeting in Potsdam, south of Berlin, (November 2010) Johannes Richardt, head of PR and communications for the German magazine NovoArgumente. In itself, its not a bad thing that Merkel declared the failure of multiculturalism, which – after all – is an ideology which places emphasis on the difference of people rather then what they have in common. The advocates of multiculturalism never pleaded for a truly open Germany and certainly never propagated equal rights for everyone. Rather, multiculturalism was used to diffuse anger created by immigration by celebrating cultural differences – thus placing division rather than equality at the centre of its ideology. That is, different peoples should have the right to express their identities, explore their own histories, formulate their own values, and pursue their own lifestyles.

6 McKinseys India By 2030 –68 cities with population more than 1 million, up from 42 today (Europe has 35) –590 million people will live in Indias cities –$1.2 trillion capital investment necessary to meet projected demand

7 McKinseys China By cities in China will have one million people living in them (Europe has 35 today) 350 million people will be added to Chinas urban population – more than the population of todays United States By billion people will live in Chinas cities

8 2. UK migration trends (source: ONS / Oxford Migration Observatory)

9 EU Integration Index Access to nationality (MIPEX 2, 2007)

10 EU Integration Index Labour Market access (MIPEX 2, 2007)

11 3. The problems with the scale of the national: the honest debate about migration Transnational links The flaws of methodological nationalism Disguised welfare externalities of scale The contested economic benefits of migration Temporalities and spatialities of 21 st century migration Disguised patterns of city transformation

12 The languages of migration policy and conceptual conundra Defining migration and migrants –Changing vocabularies of race relations, community relations, diversity Cohesion v integration Intellectual genealogies of transnationalism, integration and cohesion: thinking about the times and spaces of migration differently Assimilations implicit teleology Multiculturalisms implicit geography Cohesion and integrations popularity

13 13 4. Thinking about policy on the integration of migrants: The UK Commission on integration and cohesion : final report new definition (emphasis added) An integrated and cohesive community is one where: There is a clearly defined and widely shared sense of the contribution of different individuals and different communities to a future vision for a neighbourhood, city, region or country There is a strong sense of an individuals rights and responsibilities when living in a particular place – people know what everyone expects of them, and what they can expect in turn. Those from different backgrounds have similar life opportunities, access to services and treatment. There is a strong sense of trust in institutions locally to act fairly in arbitrating between different interests and for their role and justifications to be subject to public scrutiny There is a strong recognition of the contribution of both those who have newly arrived and those who already have deep attachments to a particular place, with a focus on what they have in common. There are strong and positive relationships between people from different backgrounds in the workplace, in schools and other institutions within neighbourhoods.

14 14 Two chimera Segregation - and the Phillips debates Multiculturalism debates – the beginning, the end and the middle of multiculturalism

15 15 Fundamental principles 1.Shared futures; a sense of becoming over being; shared identifies looking forward that recognise diverse histories and identities looking backwards 2.A notion of citizenship that is fit for purpose for the 21 st century and that accomodates different geographical scales of local, regional, national and transnational rights and responsibilities 3.An ethics of hospitality that recognises the value of the stranger and the newcomer within a framework of mutuality and civility 4.A sense of visible social justice that appeals not only to equality of opportunity and outcome but also to transparency of the decision making process

16 Thinking about past policy in relation to integration of migrants? We know that integration is a process not an end state: process(es) of interaction that enable participation, requiring the engagement of the migrant and the individuals and institutions of mainstream society. Paradoxes of rights and identity politics, rights to be visible, rights to be invisible The boundaries between community organisation and state action

17 Integration processes take place: In different but inter-connected domains: structural (labour and housing markets, access to services), social (interaction), cultural (values and behaviour), civic participation – and in relation to identity and belonging. At the local, national and transnational level (eg local identification with city; local social networks while retaining transnational social connections) At different rates (eg well integrated into the labour market but low civic participation or sense of belonging) For newcomers from the day they arrive, whether temporary or permanent

18 The implications are Integration is not only significant in relation to culture and social interaction – a narrow focus misses key dimensions and interconnections. Work affects social interactions; neighbours attitudes affect sense of belonging A migrant may be highly skilled and motivated but cannot participate unless the individuals and institutions of the host society open the door Integration is not only relevant for those remaining permanently in the UK: new arrivals need to get on with their neighbours and may need a job – so they should be among target groups

19 Implications …. We need to be clear what outcome we need in each domain for different sections of society. High levels of labour market participation for all of working age? Modest levels of social interaction between people of differing class, ethnic and religious backgrounds? A sense of belonging to neighbourhood/city for recent arrivals? Integration processes happen without policy intervention: but policy can help (or hinder) progress

20 Integration processes (for migrants and others) face a series of barriers: Language skills (English proficiency; but also literacy for UK born) Job skills (for migrants - recognition of qualifications) Shortage of suitable opportunities: jobs, accommodation Services not always well-equipped to meet diverse needs Cultural differences (eg attitudes to work, gender roles) Public attitudes towards others / discrimination (For migrants) restrictions on entitlement to work / services

21 Mechanisms to facilitate a positive experience of migration: a. Lessons from past policy intervention in relation to migrants: Plethora of approaches lacking coherence and clarity on objectives and target groups: multiculturalism, anti discrimination, good relations, refugee integration, Citizenship, impacts of migration, cohesion. Key dimensions of integration lost in narrow focus on cohesion, discrimination Suspicion of government intentions limited capacity to engage VCS Fragmentation of responsibility: Home Office, CLG, EHRC, marginalisation of other relevant departments, devolved and local administrations

22 Lessons from past policy intervention in relation to migrants 2: Expanded but inadequate resources for English language tuition; employers encouraged to contribute but little buy-in Cities / local authorities have and could take an effective lead The place making agenda: understanding the dynamics of place

23 Mechanisms to facilitate a positive experience of migration: b. Principles into practice Shared future: understanding change, institutional responses and scenario planning Ethics of hospitality: dynamics of change and property markets, regeneration, gentrification, settlement and housing Scaled citizenship: inclusions and exclusions, trade offs, rationing scarce rsources Visible social justice: transparency and acountability

24 Spe cific examples for discussion

25 Entanglements Modelling Barking futures Migration and city growth Internal migration: –Homes in Barking –Housing destitute –Planning gain and Regeneration –Gentrifiers and British African movers –Right to buy and S106

26 Entanglements 4: Sonali Gardens thematics: Social care and health care: a complex assemblage of rights and belongings The transnational and challenges to unitary citizenship Ethnicity v faith; secularism and Islam The politics of recognition, identity and the finite logics of the identitarian Eligibility criteria; welfare reform, social services, Webers paradox Land and property rights: the land deal, public ownership, private ownership : property as a bundle of rights Voice and choice – social policy reform and modernisation language Community power – networks and Sonali gardens as a vote bank. Balagonj, Bianibazar (Kalaziri) The state, governance and hybrid institutional forms Estate transfer and public debt

27 27 This may be why the public are very concerned about Race relations / immigration / immigrants - in and 2007 it was in MORI polls the top issue currently facing Britain MORI poll May 2006 – race relations/immigration/immigrants was the most commonly named main issue facing Britain today, named by 19% of people. As the graph below shows concern has been rising since 1997 – and this was the first time it had overtaken crime MORI, 2006

28 28 Some evidence diversity does not correlate with lack of conviviality % of BME households in area (deciles) Agreed that people from different backgrounds got on well together (%) Agreed that residents respect ethnic difference between people (%) 1 (lowest density) (highest density)7982

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