Presentation on theme: "Natural Selection And other mechanisms for Evolution."— Presentation transcript:
Natural Selection And other mechanisms for Evolution
Darwin’s Observations and Inferences Genetic Variation Individuals in a species vary from one to another. These variations can be passed from parent to offspring. Over Production of Offspring Individuals in populations tend to produce more offspring than can survive. Struggle for existence Over population creates competition. Environmental resources are limited. Those that are more efficient will have an advantage for survival. Differential survival and reproduction
Darwin’s Observations and Inferences Inference 1: Production of more individuals than can be supported by the environment leads to a struggle for existence among individuals, with only a fraction of offspring surviving in each generation. Inference 2: Survival in the struggle for existence is not random depends in part on the heritable characteristics Those who inherit characteristics most fit for their environment are likely to leave more offspring
Darwin’s Observations and Inferences Inference 3: The unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce leads to a gradual change in a population, with favorable characteristics accumulating over generations (natural selection). This is Evolution by Natural Selection
Darwin’s Ideas Updated A major problem in Darwin’s theory was the lack of a mechanism to explain natural selection –How could favorable variations be transmitted to later generations With the rediscovery of Mendel’s work and its vast extension in the first half of the 20th century, the missing link in evolutionary theory was forged. Darwinian theory supported by genetics is known as the modern synthesis. Darwin in his early years.
Genetics of Evolutionary Theory Darwin did not understand how traits were passed on to each generation. Today we define fitness, adaptation, species, and process of evolutionary change in genetic terms.
Terms to Know FITNESS –Ability of an individual to survive and reproduce ADAPTATION –Fitness is the result of adaptations –Adaptation is any individual characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival What is the purpose of the adaptation in this animal?
Support for Darwin’s Theory 1.Inherited variation exists within the genes of every population or species –Law of segregation –Law of independent assortment
Support for Darwin’s Theory 2.In a particular environment, some individuals of a population or species are better suited to survive and have more offspring
Support for Darwin’s Theory 3.Overtime, the traits that make certain individuals of a population able to survive and reproduce tend to spread in that population Divergence – Accumulation of differences between groups
Support for Darwin’s Theory 4.There is overwhelming evidence that living species evolve from organisms that are extinct.
Kaibab squirrel of north rim of Grand Canyon Albert squirrel of south rim of Grand Canyon Mechanisms for Evolution Geographic isolation leads to reproductive isolation –Two populations are separated by geographic barrier Example; river, mountain, ocean –Two gene pools formed
Mechanisms for Evolution Temporal isolation leads to reproductive isolation –Two or more species reproduce at different times –Example: brown trout and rainbow trout live in same stream but cannot interbreed because they breed in different months of the year Brown Trout Rainbow Trout
Patterns for Natural Selection Divergent evolution – pattern in evolution in which species that were once similar to an ancestral species diverge and become increasingly distinct. divergent evolution eventually results in a new species Polar Bear Brown Bear
Patterns for Natural Selection Adaptive radiation – when an ancestral species evolves into an array of species to fit the number of diverse habitats. –Shown when new species evolve rather quickly –Happens when a colony moves to a new environment that lacks any competing organisms –adaptive radiation is a form of divergent evolution. Examples: Hawaiian honeycreepers and finches of Galapagos.
Patterns for Natural Selection A) organ pipe cactus (N. & S. America) B) Euphorpia (African deserts) Convergent Evolution Can lead to development of analogous structures
PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION Parallel Evolution –Two related species making similar evolutionary changes after their divergence. –Marsupial and Placental mammals
Patterns for Natural Selection Convergent Evolution – when two species look alike but do not have a common ancestor Similar in appearance Similar in function Different in development, origin, & anatomy Opossum Aye-Aye
Natural Selection in Action Disruptive Coloration
Natural Selection in Action Mimicry Monarch or Viceroy Butterfly
Summary Evolution is change in species over time Heritable variations exist within a population These variations can result in differential reproductive success Over generations this can result in changes in the genetic composition of the population.