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1 The concepts of (local) development and modernization Paul Blokker.

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1 1 The concepts of (local) development and modernization Paul Blokker

2 2 Overview Class Development and Modernization 1.Main themes: 1. Modernization as a Contested Concept -Modernization theory and its main assumptions; -The typification of traditional and modern societies; -The obstacles to modernization identified; -Pattern variables; -The contested nature of modernization; -Multiple paths to Modernity?

3 3 Overview Class Development and Modernization 1.Main themes: 2. Development as a Contested Concept -Different understandings of development: mainstream, alternative, post-development; -Impossibility of development? -Implications for local development; -The idea of reflexive development; -Multiple paths to development?

4 4 Overview Course Development and Modernization 3. Relevance: a.An exploration into the contested nature and variety of meanings of modernization and development; b.An understanding of the positive and negative features of existing approaches; c.The need for a rethinking of modernization and development: reflexivity.

5 5 Overview Course Social Capital Relevant literature of the reading list: Blokker, P. (2005), Post-Communist Modernization, Transition Studies, and Diversity in Europe Knobl, W. (2003), 'Theories that won't pass away: The Neverending Story. Nederveen Pieterse, J. (1998), 'My Paradigm or Yours? Alternative Development, Post-Development, Reflexive Development', in: Development and Change, 29. Allaire, G. and M. Blanc (2003) Local/Global Institutional Systems of Environmental Public Action Trigilia, C. (2000), Economic Sociology, Blackwell Publishers, in particular chapter 7. Talcott Parsons Immanuel Wallerstein

6 6 1 Theories of Modernization

7 7 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization (see Knoebl, Trigilia 2000) -Modernization became a key concept in the 1950s and 1960s -The main focus was on non-Western and decolonised societies that were to be developed -The main expression of this concern: classical modernization theory -These theories addressed the twin problem of creating economic growth and building effective institutions.

8 8 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization (see Knoebl, Trigilia 2000) -Modernization refers to large-scale historical and social processes of change -Theories of modernization consist of macro- sociological, non-Marxist and interdisciplinary theories of social change -The emphasis was on sociocultural factors and endogenous policies of backward countries.

9 9 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Key assumptions of modernization theory (Knoebl 96) 1. Modernization is a global and irreversible process, beginning with the dual revolutions (industrial and democratic) in Europe, but now concerning the whole world;

10 10 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization 2. Modernization is a historical process, leading from traditional to modern societies, implying a strong antithesis or binary distinction between traditional and modern societies;

11 11 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization 3. In traditional or so-called 3rd World countries, there is a dominance of personal attitudes, values, and role structures which can be described as ascription, particularism, and functional diffuseness. These constitute barriers for modernization;

12 12 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization 4. In modern or Euro-Atlantic societies, there is a predominance of secular, individualistic, and scientific values and roles. These are considered to be part of modernity;

13 13 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization 5. Modernization is a more or less endogenous process in societies that should be regarded as wholes;

14 14 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization 6. Social change towards modernity in different societies will take place in a rather uniform and linear way.

15 15 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Traditional Society – Gemeinschaft - Family, Proximity, Friendship - Customs - Barter - Traditions - Habit - Inertia - Religion - Man as Social Man - Communal Property Modern Society – Gesellschaft - Anonymous relationships - Contract - Market exchange - Innovation - Novelty - Progress - Secular - Individualism - Private Property

16 16 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Approaches influenced by structural- functionalism (pattern variables) - emphasis on normative/cultural orientations typical for traditional societies: ascription (rather than achievement) - traditional cognitive dimension vs. modern rationality - emphasis on functional differentiation: specialised division of labour based on specific functional roles

17 17 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Approaches influenced by structural- functionalism (pattern variables) - search for the functional elites (political, intellectual, economic) that introduced innovation on static societies (entrepreneurs, bourgeoisie, Bildungsbuergertum); - emphasis on the capacity of different institutional systems to adapt to and control their environment through structural differentiation;

18 18 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Approaches influenced by structural- functionalism (pattern variables) Pattern variables, characteristic of pre-modern societies: Type "A 1. Ascription Status is largely ascribed (that is "given" to you by others). In basic terms, individual status is determined by the type of family into which you are born.

19 19 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Approaches influenced by structural- functionalism (pattern variables) Pattern variables, characteristic of pre-modern societies: Type "A 2. Diffuseness People develop relationships that satisfy a large range of needs. For example, a mother - child relationship satisfies a range of sociological and psychological needs.

20 20 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Approaches influenced by structural- functionalism (pattern variables) Pattern variables, characteristic of pre-modern societies: Type "A 3. Particularism People act differently towards particular people, based on the nature of their relationship. For example, you may trust your immediate family, but not a stranger.

21 21 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Approaches influenced by structural- functionalism (pattern variables) Pattern variables, characteristic of pre-modern societies: Type "A 4. Affectivity Relationships between people are largely affective (based on love, trust, close personal involvement and so forth), rather than instrumental (impersonal relationships based on what people can do for us in any given situation).

22 22 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Approaches influenced by structural- functionalism (pattern variables) Pattern variables, characteristic of pre-modern societies: Type "A 5. Collective Orientation People put the interests of the social groups to which they belong before their personal interests.

23 23 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Approaches influenced by structural- functionalism (pattern variables) Pattern variables, characteristic of modern societies: Type B 1. Achievement Status in society is achieved through the things you do (your personal merits), rather than simply being ascribed.

24 24 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Approaches influenced by structural- functionalism (pattern variables) Pattern variables, characteristic of modern societies: Type B 2. Specificity People enter into a wide range of relationships, each of which satisfies a specific need. For example, the relationship between a shop assistant and a customer is structured to fulfill a particular need.

25 25 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Approaches influenced by structural- functionalism (pattern variables) Pattern variables, characteristic of modern societies: Type B 3. Universalism Individuals act according to values and norms that are "universal" in their society. For example, the universal value that all are equal in the eyes of the law.

26 26 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Approaches influenced by structural- functionalism (pattern variables) Pattern variables, characteristic of modern societies: Type B 4. Instrumental Relationships are largely based on what people can do for us in particular situations (and what we can do for them).

27 27 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Approaches influenced by structural- functionalism (pattern variables) Pattern variables, characteristic of modern societies: Type B 5. Self Orientation People give primacy to the pursuit of their own interests, rather than those of the group or groups to which they belong.

28 28 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization - Internal critique to modernization theory a. Distinction traditional – modern society insufficient: static. Analysis of processes/take off needed; b. Impossibility of indication carrier groups; c. Conceptualization of tradition problematic: tradition alwways contrary to modernization? Particularism disappears in modernity?

29 29 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization -External critique to modernization theory a. Negligence of international factors and learning/imitation effects (Bendix; Wallerstein) b. Evolutionary model of development in stages not confirmed by reality/ Western-centric; c. Traditional – modern distinction problematic/simplistic; d. Western society as endstate; e. Variety of pathways to modernity (Barrington Moore)

30 30 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Revival of modernization theory -At the end of the 1980s, there is a revival of modernization theory; -Renewed relevance: transformation post- communist societies; -Many of the older problems reproduced (unilinearism; modern-non-modern); -Renewed criticism (path dependency; multiple modernities).

31 31 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Multiple Modernities -Acceptance of idea of original modernity (European); -Non-European societies develop different understandings of modernity (civilizational backgrounds); -Modern imaginaries (autonomy, mastery) are translatable in different institutional constellations; -Varieties of pathways to become modern; -Variety of modernities (rival models: communist modernity; Japanese modernity) (transformation over time: liberal modernity; organized modernity; reflexive modernity?)

32 32 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Modernitys key characteristics (Blokker 2005): The first important characteristic is the negation of traditional authority and a religiously legitimated political order. By denying the foundation of political and societal order on other-worldly grounds, modernizing agents claim the possibility of constructing a new order on the basis of self-produced understandings of such an order.

33 33 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Modernitys key characteristics: The second, strongly related, key characteristic of modernity is the emphasis on human autonomy, i.e. the idea of the human being as a subject who is able to understand the world and act on these understandings.

34 34 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Modernitys key characteristics: The third characteristic is the idea that society (and nature) is malleable, and that human beings can therefore reconstruct their own societies on the basis of their own visions.

35 35 1. Modernization Theories of Modernization Modernitys key characteristics: The fourth characteristic is the essentially future- oriented nature of modern ideas and programmes of modernization. By creating (utopian) visions of a better society, modern agents divide the present from the past, and claim that by means of decisive action these visions can be implemented in the present.

36 36 1. Modernization Source: Woolcock 2009, The next 10 years in development studies: From modernization to multiple modernities, in theory and practice, European Journal of Development Research 21, 4–9.

37 37 2 Development

38 38 2. Development Development -Development has for a long time been equalized with socio-economic modernization (in its classical understanding as Westernization): economic growth (% of GDP), division of labour, innovation, increasing human capital, breaking up of traditional social bonds, industrializing/post- industrializing the economy, opening up local markets;

39 39 2. Development Development -The distinction or tension is nowadays less between mainstream development versus alternative types, and more about structural adjustment (IMF) versus human and social development;

40 40 2. Development Alternative Development (Nederveen Pieterse) -Alternative Development: 1. Participatory and people-centred; 2. Widespread consensus that development is more successful when there is participation from the community; 3. Development not only about GDP growth; 4. Human development most appropriate goal and measure of development; 5. Development from below.

41 41 2. Development Alternative Development (Nederveen Pieterse) -Alternative Development: -Ranging from destructive critique of mainstream development to sets of proposals for alternative ways; -It can be confined to alternative ways of pursuing local development or it can entail an alternative vision of the global order (dependencia; neo-Keynesianism; neo- or post-Marxism;

42 42 2. Development Alternative Development (Nederveen Pieterse) -Alternative Development: Three focal points: 1. Agents (who is involved, how?); 2. Methods (what kind of means? endogenous, exogenous?); 3. Objectives or values (what are the end goals? Autonomy, democracy, growth, self- development?).

43 43 2. Development Alternative Development (Nederveen Pieterse) -Alternative Development: One possible definition: Development is a process by which members of a society increase their personal and institutional capabilities to mobilize and manage resources to produce sustainable and justly distributed improvements in their quality of life consistent with their own aspirations (Korten, cited in: Nederveen Pieterse)

44 44 2. Development

45 45 2. Development

46 46 2. Development Alternative Development (Nederveen Pieterse) -Post-Development: - Rejection of Western models and paradigms (science, progress, development): Development has become outdated; - Resentment: reaction against failures of development, corruption, imposition, environmental destruction; - Emphasis on equity, self-subsistence, self-reliance; - Anti-modern stance: return to community; - Simplistic, homogenized view of development; - Critical, but no proposition of alternative.

47 47 2. Development Alternative Development (Nederveen Pieterse) -Reflexive Development: - Rejection of grand solutions, grand theory, singular truths; - Acceptance of complexity and contextuality; - Reflexivity: - acknowledgement of double hermeneutic (Giddens); - post-paradigmatic; - Constructivist: knowledge is produced, including by social actors themselves.

48 48 2. Development Alternative Development (Nederveen Pieterse) -Reflexive Development: - Breakdown of faith in: - technical progresss = social progress; - growth = development; - economic growth = social development; - Recognition of the limits of malleability/intervention; - Popular and participatory reflexivity.

49 49 2. Development Example Environmental development (Allaire and Blanc) -Growing concerns over local and global environmental quality -Environmental services relating to both the local and the global -Different levels and stakeholders involved -Necessity of local collaboration (government, actors)

50 50 2. Development Example Environmental development -Analysis of the local planning process that underpins the procurement of public environmental goods: -Cleaning up environment -Creating recreational areas -Furthering sustainability -Increasing biodiversity

51 51 2. Development Example Environmental development -Different levels involved: -EU agro-environmental schemes -EU Structural Funds -National employment and integration policies -National and rural development funds and co-funding programmes

52 52 2. Development Example Environmental development -Analytical model: -Institutional sectors (repertoires of evaluation): A policy network supported by conventions that homogenise the representations of problems to be solved -4 sectors: -Institutional: ministry of agriculture and farmers unions -Occupational and social integrational -Environmental -Local development

53 53 2. Development Example Environmental development -Analytical model: -Double relation services: 1. Public body and end-user 2. Public body and service-provider/experts/intermediaries

54 54 2. Development


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