Presentation on theme: "Varieties of Democracy in the New Member States Paul Blokker University of Sussex/University of Trento."— Presentation transcript:
Varieties of Democracy in the New Member States Paul Blokker University of Sussex/University of Trento
1. Main Assumptions and outline project 2. Democratizion Theory and Political culture: a Critique 3. Normative Political Theory and Political Culture: A Critique 4. A Multiple Democracies-Approach: Ethics of Democracy 5. Constitutions and Political Culture in Three New Member States 6. Elite discourses on (European) Democracy Outline
Democratization of New Member States understood as a form of assimilation by newcomers to European structures (institutions/political culture) It can be argued that EU Enlargement has indeed involved a form of formal/institutional convergence At the same time, a form of politico-cultural Differentiation is part of the Europeanization process 1. Main Assumptions and outline project
The Theoretical approach starts from a rereading and dual critique of both democratization studies and normative political theory An alternative approach is proposed: a Multiple Democracies approach Democratic political cultures are grounded in/place dissimilar emphasis on distinct orientations or democratic ethics (rule of law, identity, participation) application approach in empirical-comparative analysis of political cultures in Hungary, Poland, and Romania 1. Main Assumptions and outline project
Critique of democratization studies i. reproduction of liberal democracy ii. Emphasis on constitutional dimension iii. No sensibility for innovation /contestation 2. Democratizion Theory and Political culture: a Critique
Critique of Normative Political Theory i. Universalistic approaches: assumption of singular, liberal attachment to the polity ii. Cultural/Hermeneutic approaches: assumption of national political culture Alternative understanding building on idea of plurality of discourses on/justifications of democracy, but not tied to specific social goods or institutional settings, and not excluded on basis of standard of rationality Democracy is regime in which any idea can be raised (Castoriadis) 3. Normative Political Theory and Political Culture: A Critique
Four main ethics/orientations identified: 1. Ethic of Rights 2. Ethic of Identity 3. Ethic of Participation 4. Ethic of Distribitive Justice Possible other ethics: Ethic of deliberation; Ethic of dissent 4. A Multiple Democracies-Approach: Ethics of Democracy
- Hungary: - legal revolution/supranational constitutionalism - Strong emphasis on legal continuity, constitutionalism - late 1990s: Counterconstitution, visibility of ethic of identity - Poland: - Dual understanding of democratic polity: both ethic of rights and ethic of identity - Not necessarily stand-off, compromise visible - Romania: - constitutional nationalism/ communitarian constitutionalism - increasing visibility ethic of rights 5. Constitutions and Political Culture in Three New Member States
Hungary: Remember, that it was the MSZMP itself which started to dismantle the single party state, and saw its main goal as creating a state based on the rule of law in its place. We are convinced that creating modern institutions, even by European comparison, will both enhance political stability, enable peaceful transition and lead to a new national compromise (Resző Nyers, in: Bozoki 2002: 336).
5. Constitutions and Political Culture in Three New Member States Poland: Both those who believe in God as the source of truth, justice, good and beauty, As well as those not sharing such faith but respecting those universal values as arising from other sources… for our culture rooted in the Christian heritage of the Nation and in universal human values… Recognizing our responsibility before God or our own consciences… (Preamble Polish Constitution 1997).
5. Constitutions and Political Culture in Three New Member States Romania: As a dimension of a psychological nature of the state, the nation is not exclusively an ethnic or biological phenomenon, [rather] it synthesises and articulates the historical past, traditions, model of life, a community of language and culture, genetic relations of generations and the unity of the latter their ideals in forming and affirming the Romanian national state. The national sentiment therefore constitutes the strongest ferment to the states cohesion and its continuity (Geneza Constitutiei 1998: 63).
Hungary: dualistic political cultureBasically, it has … become pretty close to two political societies, and not just political societies in Hungary, which have a very different view of the world. Which, you know… one does believe in nationhood. It is real, it is a real phenomenon. The other says no, there is no such thing…. If you say you are Hungarian you are a chauvinist and an anti-semite and so on. It is a little bit absurd… (Interview Gyorgy Schoepflin, MEP, June 2008) 6. Elite discourses on (European) Democracy
Poland: in contemporary times, the rule of law, and the state of law and democracy, they are complementary notions [The] Catholic church supported opposition generally… This is the reason that generally in Poland for instance the left-side party, the social-democrats, who are generally against the church impact [on] the politician, they do not question the position of the church in the constitution… This is a kind of consensus… that Catholic religion has a special status in Poland……The Polish Church is not [only] religion, it is a very long tradition. It is a cultural tradition, not a religion… 6. Elite discourses on (European) Democracy
Romania:Thus, we believe that the national character of the state has been exceeded by history, it has become anachronistic. It is known that we criticized the syntagm of national state also in 1991, remaining consistent in this opinion, as it is a political category that has fulfilled its historical role, and has become dissonant with a modern Constitution, and we can specify that nothing similar appears in European fundamental laws, in the states of Europe (Dezbateri parlamentare, 18 June 2003) 6. Elite discourses on (European) Democracy
Hungary: Hungarian views of Europe We are interested in a Union based on nations, themselves based on regions and local communities. We are not in favour of the United States of Europe. We want to maintain cultural and national diversities There is presently a striking contradiction between the practice of the EU enforcing the protection of minority rights in the accession candidate countries by the Copenhagen criteria, the Europe Agreements and the recommendations made in the framework of the Accession Partnership on one hand and the lack of legal basis in this field for the adoption of the same kind of measures in the Community on the other hand 6. Elite discourses on (European) Democracy
Poland: Polish views of Europe Poland has a different historical experience, as it lost its independence many times, and while there was no possibility to express ones national identity during communism, the current partaking in EU integration means that Poland, again, lost part of its independence. Yes, [it is in our constitution, our thinking] … we have this preservation… of defending our culture, because of our history. Those who dont understand, like the Brits, they do not need to, but we have to. 6. Elite discourses on (European) Democracy
Romania: Romanian Views of Europe We speak of nations within the European Union, but our cultural identity is something completely different. This is a creative process, a permanent process, a process in which every generation adds something to an edifice which in its permanent nature represents the Romanian people, represents its ideals, represents its national spirit (Dezbateri Parlamentare, 2004) 6. Elite discourses on (European) Democracy