Presentation on theme: "Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants Status and overview of obligations to Parties Don Cooper, Executive Secretary, Stockholm Convention."— Presentation transcript:
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants Status and overview of obligations to Parties Don Cooper, Executive Secretary, Stockholm Convention April 2009
2 What is the status of the Convention? Convention adopted on 22 May Governments signed it Convention entered into force on 17 May Parties to date (17 November 2008) 3 COPs have already been convened COP-1 held in May 2005 in Punta del Este Uruguay COP-2 held in Geneva in May 2006 COP-3 held in Dakar, Senegal in May 2007 COP-4 is scheduled to be convened in Geneva in 4-8 May 2009
3 Stockholm Convention status of ratification
4 Obligations of the Convention Elimination Restriction Continued reduction Promotion Preparation of NIP Reporting Effectiveness evaluation
5 Obligations of the Convention: Elimination of POPs Each Party shall prohibit and/or take the legal and administrative measures necessary to eliminate its production and use of chemicals in Annex A subject to the provisions of that Annex.
6 Annex A: Elimination Currently listed: aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mirex, PCBs, and toxaphene Some country-specific exemptions possible for aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, HCB, mirex General exemptions for unintentional trace contaminants, quantities in articles before entry-into- force of the Convention and laboratory-scale research quantities Exemption for HCB as closed-system site-limited intermediate Elimination goal for PCBs Provision on POPs contaminated wastes
7 For PCBs: 3 Main Goals 1. Cease production of PCBs immediately. 2. Eliminate use of in-place PCB equipment by Achieve environmentally sound disposal of PCB wastes as soon as possible and not later than 2028.
8 Restriction provisions: Each Party shall restrict its production and use of chemicals in Annex B in accordance with the provisions of that Annex. Currently listed: DDT Production and use of chemicals in Annex B is eliminated, except for acceptable purposes
9 For DDT: Parties shall: Eliminate production and use unless they have notified the Secretariat of their intent to use it If so, they must: Restrict such production/use to disease vector in accordance with WHO guidelines, recommendations Provide information on use to the Secretariat every three years COP shall: encourage Parties using DDT to develop and implement an action plan to ensure that DDT use is restricted to disease vector control, and implementation of suitable alternatives
10 Release reduction/elimination Each Party shall: Develop an action plan to evaluate and address releases Promote measures to achieve realistic and meaningful levels of release reduction or source elimination Promote development and, where appropriate, require use of substitute or modified materials, products and processes to prevent formation and release of POPs Promote/Require BAT and BEP for new/existing sources When applying BAT/BEP, Parties to consider COP guidelines (Now available in E, F, R, S) Give priority to certain recovery, recycling and other waste management practices outlined in Annex C that prevent releases of unintentionally produced POPs
11 Managing stockpiles & wastes Parties are to: Develop strategies for identifying POPs stockpiles Manage POPs stockpiles & wastes in an environmentally sound manner Dispose of POPs wastes consistent with international rules Not dispose in a way that leads to reuse of POPs Not to transport POPs wastes unless comply with international rules
12 Working with Basel Convention on POPs contaminated wastes Stockholm Convention shall cooperate with Basel Convention to: Establish levels of destruction where POPs characteristics are not exhibited Determine what methods constitute environmentally sound disposal Define low POP content concentration levels Under the Basel Convention several guidelines for management of POPs wastes have been developed.
13 Implementation plans (Article 7) Parties shall develop and implement plans for the implementation of their treaty obligations Guidance for developing NIPs available 85 national plans have been submitted as of 17 November developing and EIT countries funded thus far to develop their plans Plans of the first 50 Parties were due in May 2006
14 Indicator of implementation: NIPs transmitted Western Europe & others Central & Eastern Europe Africa Asia & Pacific Latin America & Caribbean Total Parties NIP required (end March 09) NIP transmitt ed %
NIP transmitted in EECCA NIP status Armenia yes Azerbaijan no (due May 06) Belarus yes Georgia no (due Jan 09) Kazakhstan no (due Feb 10) Kyrgyz Republic no (due March 09) Moldova yes Russian Federation not Party Tajikistan yes Turkmenistan not Party Ukraine no (due Dec 09) Uzbekistan not Party
16 Identifying new POPs (Article 8) Criteria and a procedure established for adding new POPs Any Party may submit a proposal for listing chemicals POPs Review Committee was set up at COP-1 to (1) review submissions, (2) develop risk profiles (3) risk management evaluations and (4) make recommendations to the COP COP makes decisions, and the Convention is then amended accordingly
POPs Review Committee: Recommends adding nine chemicals to the Convention: Pentabromodiphenyl ether (flame retardant); Chlordecone (pesticide) Hexabromobiphenyl ether (flame retardant) Lindane (pesticide) Alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (byproduct in Lindane production) Beta hexachlorocyclohexane (byproduct in Lindane production) Perflurooctane sulfonic acid, its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (multiple industrial uses) Hexabromodiphenyl either and other hexa- and hepabromodiphenyl eithers present in commerical octabromodiphenyl ether (flame retardant) Pentachlorobenzene (flame retardant, unintentional release
18 Information exchange (Article 9) Parties shall: facilitate/undertake exchange of POPs information establish national Stockholm Convention focal for point technical informaiton exchange Designate official contact points for formal communications (required by COP decision) Secretariat to be a POPs information clearing- house
19 Promotion and research Public information, awareness and education (Article 10) Parties shall promote the provision of POPs information to the public and decision makers, including training programs, public participation in efforts to address POPs Research, development and monitoring (Article 11): Parties shall encourage/undertake such activities pertaining to POPs and their alternative, and identifying new POPs
20 Reporting (Article 15) Each Party shall report to the COP on measures taken to implement the Convention (first reports by end of 2006) Each Party to provide to the Secretariat information on quantities of POPs listed in Annex A and B produced, imported, exported, and where possible the States from which POPs are exported On line reporting is available in the Convention web page.
21 Effectiveness evaluation Effectiveness evaluation (Article 16): COP will evaluate the effectiveness of the treaty beginning 4 years after entry into force based on reports and monitoring data received Initiatives for first set of environmental data collection is underway First effectiveness evaluation at COP-4