Presentation on theme: "The Parma Ministerial Declaration for WASH in schools in EECCA region"— Presentation transcript:
1The Parma Ministerial Declaration for WASH in schools in EECCA region Sascha Gabizon, Executive Director, WECFMargriet Samwel, Coordinator Water Programme, WECFFor those of you who do not know us,WECF was created at the eart summit in 1992 to give a voice and organisation to the women major group,- one of the 9 key groups in agenda 21 to help implement sustainable developmetn.We started as a network in West and East Europe, and we have now gronw to on international network with more than 100 member organisations in over 40 countries, implementing projects locally iwth with more than 50,000 people, and bringing the lessons learned into national , and international policy processes. We co-chair the women major gruop for UNCSD, Rio+20, UNEP, UNFCCC and CBD.In the last 5 years our sanitation and water projects have been funded by teh netherlands ministry of dev coop, german min of environment and foundations. We have focussed on Afghanistan, central asia, caucasus and eatern europe, which are forgotten region in this regard.We have focussed on integrated sollutions, which improve women and children health , are affordable , can be locally build and locally upscalled. In our programme 700 individual household toilets for 5000 users were buildt, in villages without centralized water supply or sanitation.We have tested many different systems of financing these toilets. And in our assessment report which we are now finalizing, we come to the conclusion, that sanitation is a serious thing, and is best done by professionals, even in very poor villages.We have seen best successes in Kyrgystan, where the WB and ADB had already supported NGOs to create local water user associations. These associations are already accepted and democratically elected, are gathering monthly fees from their members...and these are the best placed to also provide sanitation services, and energy services. Look at france with ist 30,000 unconnected communities, the individual households are NOT capable of maintaining their sanitation sysstem, and their are continuous problems of the septic tanks from one house, pollutiong the drinking water well from the neighbour.We believe that it is an error to think that just any household should be responsible for ist own sanitation and waste water. But this is NOT what I want to give you a short presentation about, I want to speak about another issue, which wECF and a coalition of partners, inc luding GTO, BORDA and probably other partners , woudl like to focus on , and that is shared sanitation, in parrticualr, shcool sanitation.
2Content: Sanitation in EECCA region Parma Ministerial Declaration Lessons from 10-country School Sanitation programIdeas for implementing Parma declaration
3est. 30 million people do not have safe sanitation in EU alone, how many in EECCA? UzbekistanArmeniaUkraineSchool toilets rural areas:Far away, smelly, insectsCovered in excretaNo hand-washingNo privacy, no waste-binsGroundwater pollution
5Current Situation School Sanitation in EECCA region Many schools build without toiletsHardware often unsustainableSoftware not provided“shit smeared over the walls”“cleaning materials ‘reused’”“girls harassed on way to toilet”“girls ‘keep it up’ all day”“blather/urinary track infections”
7Sanitation in EECCA region Parma Ministerial Declaration Lessons from 10-country School Sanitation programIdeas for implementing Parma declarationFloat some first ideas, developed with women enviro and devel orgs, my cochair from the south, trade union women
8Parma Declaration on Environment and Health Ministerial declaration endorsed by 53 Member States attending the 5th Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health in Parma, Italy on March 2010.Consist of: 1) Ministerial Declaration and 2) Commitment to Acte/0011/78608/E93618.pdf
9Parma Declaration on Environment and Health Through the declaration the participating governments agreed to implement national programmes to provide equal opportunities to each child by 2020 by ensuring access to safe water and sanitation, opportunities for physical activity and a healthy diet, improved air quality and an environment free of toxic chemicals
10Parma Ministerial Declaration 3.We are committed to act on the key environment and health challenges of our time. These include:(b)the health risks to children and other vulnerable groups posed by poor environmental, working and living conditions (especially the lack of water and sanitation)
11Parma Ministerial Declaration 4.We will address these challenges by setting up or strengthening existing mechanisms or structures that can ensure effective implementation, promote local actions and ensure active participation
12Parma Ministerial Declaration 5.We will intensify efforts to develop, improve and implement health and environmental legislation
13Parma Ministerial Declaration 5.We will intensify efforts to develop, improve and implement health and environmental legislation6.We will ensure that youth participation is facilitated
14Parma Ministerial Declaration 8. We encourage international stakeholders, including international financial institutions, and the European Commission to offer further scientific, political, technical and financial assistance
15Parma Ministerial Declaration 10.We endorse and will implement the „Commitment to act“ and the goals and targets included therein. That document is an integral part of this Declaration.
16Parma Commitment to Act A. Protecting children’s health1.We reconfirm our commitment to prioritized actions under the regional priority goals (RPGs) in the Children’s Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) as indicated below. We will strive to attain the targets in the RPGs as set out below. Regional Priority Goal 1: Ensuring public health by improving access to safe water and sanitation
17Parma Commitment to Act A. Protecting children’s health1. ii.We will strive to provide each child with access to safe water and sanitation in homes, child care centres, kindergartens, schools, health care institutions and public recreational water settings by 2020, and to revitalize hygiene practices.
18Sanitation in EECCA region Parma Ministerial Declaration Lessons from 10-country School Sanitation programIdeas for implementing Parma declarationFloat some first ideas, developed with women enviro and devel orgs, my cochair from the south, trade union women
19Lessons Learned from 10-country WECF sanitation program “Soviets made pit latrines obligatory in the 1930s - in some cases punished with prison”
2050 sustainable school toilet-buildings in 10 countries since 2003 - e.g. instead of fossil fuel subsidiespupils and teachers using WECF school-toiletsTotal direct cost per user: 37 euro (average)
21All 50 school toilet buildings use Dry Urine Diversion Systems Because in target villages:No central water supply to flushNo central sewage systemBenefits:More hygienicNo smell - can be indoor (climate!)Reuse of nutrientsDrinking water source protection- e.g. instead of fossil fuel subsidies
22Best Practices Hardware Indoor toilets where-ever possible• Separate rooms for boys and girlsSpecial teenage girls facilities (depends on culture) for girls during menstruation period• Privacy: doors can be closed/lockedSquatting slaps - not sitting seats (hygiene)• Proper smell prevention• Hand wash basin and simple grey water treatment• High quality material for long term sustainabilityBig urine tanks for 6 months storage time (hygiene)• Footprint near the squatting slab so children know where to stand.
23First outdoor UDD school Toilet for 200 pupils in Romania : 8 years in use, total cost € 6000 TrainingsConstructionUrine storage
24First indoor school toilet for 350 pupils + teachers in Armenia: €20,000 Waterless urinals at different heightsSquatting toilet with urine diversionUrine storage tanks in the basementBuilt by AWHHW, Quelque Chose architects and TUHHWash basins and the toilet care-taker
27Best Practices ‘Software’ Agree in advance on responsibilities and financial contribution of the schoolEmploying a “care-taker” is keyObtain in advance approvals needed (authorities for education, architecture, health, environment, emergency/utilities, fire, electricity)Hygiene education (PHAST*) for pupils, teachers and parentsUsage, operation and maintenance of facilities trainings for pupils, teachers and personnel“how to...” educational posters in the toiletTraining on the re-use of nutrients (or energy)* Participatory Health And Sanitation Transformation (WHO)
28Check-list school MoU Who cleans the toilet? Who collects ash/saw dust for the toilet?Who checks the toilet on technical defects?Who is responsible for operation and maintenance?What to do when something is broken?How should the O&M be financed?Who develops an education strategy?How will awareness be created among the school children?How can the school guarantee that the toilet will be properly used?
29WECF Impact Assessment First of its kind, gives an indication3 step methodology:Questionnaire for female and male pupils31 (29 boys) questions related toAcceptance - Dignity - GenderHealth - Absenteeism - Menstruation (girls only)Absenteeism “class book” surveyFocus group discussion (only with pupils, no teachers present)Sample10 schools with UDD toilets: total 361 pupils8 reference schools with pit latrine: total 245 pupils5 countries: Moldova, Ukraine, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan
31Pupils Focus Group Discussions some preliminary results On new toilets:All children are very satisfied about new toilets because of greater comfort (clean, warm, no smell, hand-washing facilities, short distance etc.)Especially girls experience benefits because of greater privacy and washing facilitiesOn pit latrines:Especially girls avoid using the pit latrinesIn Central Asia girls skipped school during their menstruation period because of the bad pit latrineIn Central Asia children went to home during classes to go the toilet because of the bad pit latrineIn all countries some girls use latrines during classes to have more privacy
32School Sanitation: Global Priority Lessons from 10-country program Hardware: best and worst practicesSoftware: best and worst practicesIdeas for 5 yr driveFloat some first ideas, developed with women enviro and devel orgs, my cochair from the south, trade union women
33School Sanitation - Should be a global Priority does not count for Millennium Dev Goalsexcluded from JMPis core responsibility of governmentis essential for girls school attendance“discriminating” factor for girlsneeds innovative financial mechanismscan be a win-win dealshould be policy priority
34General reflections on School Sanitation - ‘Hardware’ Choice of ‘hardware’ does matterIndoor toilets with re-use systems are good solution for non-piped areasNeed to be added to national codes (construction, hygiene, agriculture)Not more expensive then VIP pit-latrinesPotential income generation from re-use, energy - can cover maintenance costsPotentially saves costs drinking water treatment
35General Recommendations School Sanitation - ‘Software’ No ‘hardware’ works without ‘software’Hygiene needs to be taught (also in EU)Cleaning of toilets is not a habit amongst latrine users: needs to be learnedIncentives and education for pupils against vandalismTeenage girls need to feel ‘safe’ regarding menstruation - waste baskets, doors that lock, own toiletsInclusive sanitation (e.g. children with disabilities)Pupils should feel ownership, know its their right
36Link Parma Implementation and 5 yr Sustainable Sanitation Drive Link to implementation of UN GA resolution “human right to water and sanitation”Call on all countries to set targets for achieving 100% safe school sanitationDefine “sustainable” sanitation (5 SuSanA criteria)Establish principle: “no toilet - no school”Post-2015 inclusion of public sanitation in MDGsWASH in Schools: focus of 1 of the 5 years!
375 Yr Drive - Financing School Sanitation Funding priority from public budget“Total sanitation” incentive approach does not work for public buildingsGlobal School Sanitation Fund (e.g. DK, EBRD)Aim:pilots in each country - examples convinceAll schools in a few countries (Moldova, Lesotho)Incentives for partnerships including civil societyCommunicate the successes
38Our plans: extend Guidelines Best Practices School Sanitation ? Guidelines with best practices for school sanitation hardware and softwareBaseline of current school sanitation (e.g. Moldova)Comparison of different hardware optionsCapacity building tools for re-use sanitation systemsEducational and training tools on hygiene, use, maintenancePossible partners....
39Other areas ? Draw on work done within PWH Capacity building online tool on small scale sanitation (with Germany and Czech republic)Guidelines on public participation in sanitation decision making (with Romania)Guidelines on equitable access (with France)