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P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 1 Critical introduction to SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND THE EDITORIAL PROCESS.

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Presentation on theme: "P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 1 Critical introduction to SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND THE EDITORIAL PROCESS."— Presentation transcript:

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2 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Critical introduction to SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND THE EDITORIAL PROCESS Paola De Castro Istituto Superiore di Sanità NECOBELAC Training Module

3 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Knowledge and responsibilities to communicate results of scientific reseach 2.Sea change in knowledge dissemination 3.Rules and best practice for publication in scientific journals REFLECT ON Objective of the module

4 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Knowledge today… 1.It can assume different meanings (contest) 2.It is not only information (which exists regardless of its use) 3.It requires a user able to link available knowledge to his/her personal experience Today information is available (or potentially available) for all, provided that you have proper skills and technical devices to use it and adquire knowlege learning education communication representation mental stimula environment COMPLEXITY

5 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, INTERNET PROVIDES TOOLS where to find how to recognize quality how to use BUT you should know A cultural change is still required which should not only be associated to the development and availability of new technologies BUT to the capacity to use resources provided by such technologies these tools

6 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Online resources OA Directory OA WIKI OASIS OpenAIRE DOAJ

7 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Learning is not a private enterprise Privatization of knowledge generates damage particularly in the case of research financed with public funds, and even more in the health sector Scientists must play an active role in the public debate on health issues Knowledge as a SOCIAL VALUE Knowledge dissemination becomes a CIVIL COMMITMENT J. Willinsky. The Properties of Lockes Common-wealth of Learning. Policy Futures in Education Volume 4 Number K. Carr, Liberating the voices of science, The Australian, January 16, Senator Carr is Australia - Minister for Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. (http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197, ,00.html)

8 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, It is a responsiblitity that must be recognised and undertaken with the same commitment and professionality as for all the other science-related activities Responsibility of science communication For all people working in Research and Development ESSENTIAL part of their work Information transfer is an

9 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, TO WHOM and HOW to communicate? Peer General public Policy makers Patients Clients Etc. Oral Written Non verbal WHOM? HOW? Identify the most appropriate way of communicating according to your target

10 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, WHERE does responsibility lay? Scientists Institutions where they work Editors (reviewers, technical editors, etc.) Publishers Librarians, information specialists, web-masters Etc. They all contribute to create (quality) information, BUT they have different interests in the publishing enterprise

11 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, WRITE A USEFUL ARTICLE to contribute to the progress of science Which needs shall I meet? Are there other publications on the same topic? Are they up-dated? Are they useful? Are they easily available? Are they free on the Internet? Why write an article? Where to publish it? With whom? How much time? Which budget? VALUE OF SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS For the target (readers) In some cases, national journals or books may be more appropriate CONSIDER

12 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, HOW TO SELECT THE JOURNAL? Indexed journals (IF) Journals where important authors publish High reject rate journals Journals which I read for updating WHAT TO CONSIDER? Where is the journal indexed Editorial committee Editorial organization (policy) (peer review, time) Online availability Copyright issues … VALUE OF SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS PUBLISH IN QUALITY JOURNALS to obtain the highest evaluation (grants, career advancement) For the author (writer)

13 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Watson J D, Crick FHC. Molecular structure of nucleic acids: a structure for deoxyribose nucleid acid. Nature 1953; 171: c AUTHORSHIP & INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY 1953 Watson e Crick published an article on DNA which is very famous and well known all over the world … and what about Rosalind Franklin?

14 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, How does knowledge transmission change through the centuries? Printing Writing Internet Fist graffiti years ago Hieroglyphs BC Alphabeth BC China 1050, Gutenberg 1450 Internet 1974 – 1990 Web – Google 1995 Symbols = concepts syllables Orality Oral memory within a community The big revolutions

15 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, The Bible, 1456 First book printed in Magonza by Gutenberg 180 copies 36 x 29 cm Print diffusion Millions of copies printed in few years The Comedy by Dante Alighieri, 1491 Texts have already a defined structure (commentaries by Cristoforo Landino) Page numbering and italic were introduced by Aldo Manunzio in 1501

16 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS rise in the 17th century in the academies Journal des Scavans First journal, published in Paris 1665 Before, philosophers communicated through philosophical dissertations and letters Present the most relevant European scientific papers Inform the Royal Society members and other readers about scientific discoveries Philosophical Transactions Royal Society of London, 1666 OBJECTIVE OBJECTIVES Establish principles scientific priority and peer review

17 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Scientific journals develop since the 18 th century Scientific societies Universities Governmental agencies Scientific institutions Profesional associations still today they represent the preferred channel to disseminate scientific research results WHO IS THE PUBLISHER? Journal shape keeps unchanged until the Internet revolution In the centuries, science becomes more specialized The publishing enterprise develops Sequential reading Texts and illustrations Text structure Paratextual elements The book shape has an influence on the way of thinking

18 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Scientific journals Chronological development and figures 2012 ? Gutemberg revolution Internet revolution 1660Rise (academies) 1700 Development (100) 1850Development (1000) 1900 Sectorial specialization ( ) 1950 Further specialization ( ) 1990 Exponencial development ( ) 2000 Open Access 2003 Berlin Declaration 2004 Permission crisis 2005 Development of OA policies …

19 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, TODAY INTERNET allows new ways of communication Journals (and books) change their shape Blogs Discussion lists Wikis Online answers Social networks Collective conversations All this deeply affects scientific communication New ways are developed

20 The article of the future 5 minute video by Elsevier 19 It shows the advantages of enriched articles Supplementary information interactive content It provides true immersion in the contest of the subject matter Data are linked to databases providing the most updated information It proves a positive correlation between data sharing, citations and impact

21 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Proposal for an UNJOURNAL Active participation of the research community Two months for open peer review, and then the articles gets scores and citations OPEN SCIENCE UNJOURNAL

22 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, INTERNET CHANGES ECONOMIC MODELS AND ALLOWS NEW METRICS Authors become aware of the new opportunities provided by ICT and start negotiate their rights ( self archiving is now recognised by most publishers) NECOBELAC TOPIC MAPS include modules and schemes for all these issues Online free full text is generally required and also the availability of research data is desired New evaluation metrics are introduced as alternative to IF, e.g. H index (individual research output) There is confusion on the roles of the actors of the editorial process and some contraddictions Publishers are looking for new opportunities Journal prices grow exponentially OA journals utilizing free software are developed

23 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, SCIENTISTS IN THE WORLD (UNESCO, Science reports) increased scientific output Increased investment in research specialization NUMBER OF PUBLICATIONS now doubles every two years technologies indexing systems circulation/citations metrics Development in

24 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, SCIENTISTS IN THE WORLD TODAY UNESCO, Science report 2010 United States21.0 % European Union 20.0 % China 19.7 % Japon 11.0 % Russia 7.0 % 75% researchers in the world work in the above countries representing only 35% of the world population 7, India 2.0 % Latin America 3.5% Africa 2.2%

25 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Publications in the world (2008= ) UNESCO, Science report 2010 – Based on ISI data United States28% European Union 37% China 10% Japon 8% Russia7% Latin America 4.9% due primarily to Brasil Africa 2.2% with 25% increase in the last 6 years USA and EU are still the world leaders as for the absolute number of scientific publications. Yet, their percentage share of publications decreased much more then any other country in the last 6 years. On the other hand, China doubled its publications (10%) Considering the size of Asian population it is envisaged that it will become the leader continent as for publication output in the coming years Data refer to 2008, now the situation is rapidly changing

26 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Citation increase in OA journals Open access citation average. A. Swan

27 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Our mission of disseminating knowledge is only half complete if the information is not made widely and readily available to society. New possibilities of knowledge dissemination not only through the classical form but also and increasingly through the open access paradigm via the Internet have to be supported. We define open access as a comprehensive source of human knowledge and cultural heritage that has been approved by the scientific community. In order to realize the vision of a global and accessible representation of knowledge, the future Web has to be sustainable, interactive, and transparent. Content and software tools must be openly accessible and compatible. Basic concepts from the Berlin Declaration (2003) OPEN ACCESS: a new paradigm of communication

28 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Open Access: aprire la gabbia … it requires the active commitment of each and every individual producer of scientific knowledge and holder of cultural heritage. Open access contributions include original scientific research results, raw data and metadata, source materials, digital representations of pictorial and graphical materials and scholarly multimedia material.

29 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Open Journal Systems Free software for online journal management About 11,500 journals

30 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, ISS OA policy was signed in 2007 ISS represented the first health research institute in Italy having an OA policy Development of OA policies

31 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Internet revolution adds complexity to the publishing process Ronald La Port. BMJ 1995, 2002 Death of metamorphis of scientific journals? ¿ We are now in search of a new balance…

32 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, The European Commission supports OA all articles resulting from EU funded projects be deposited and preserved in digital archives (Special clause 39 on OA, 7FP) Besides OA specific projects, the EU requires that

33 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, OA is a philosophy and not an archive OA routes 2000 listings 7646 OA CREATE AWARENESS among all stakeholders Digital archives (green) OA journals (gold)

34 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, HOW MANY journals today? ISSN all disciplines (aprox ) current (15% online) ISI WEB OF SCIENCE SCI6500 SSCI 1800 AHCI1140 MEDLARS (biomedicine) (21 million articles, some with links to full-text) PEER REVIEWED 15-20% OA 9000 HIGH IMPACT 5000 journals DOAJ: 7600 (800 health) 30% have publicaton fees

35 Scientific Electronic Library Online SciELO a model for cooperative electronic publishing in LA 34 Born in 1998 in Brasil, now it includes 940 Journals for all disciplines 294 Health sciences 98 Biological sciences ISI formula for IF Quality criteria NECOBELAC - SciELO Workshop in Rome, 21 June 2012

36 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, RESEARCHERS ATTITUDE ON OA Survey of the Project SOAP (Study on OA Publishing, ) scientists 90% declare that OA is a benefit scientists Financial barriers OA (39%) No quality OA journals (30%) ONLINE SURVEY NEED TO CREATE AWARENESS ON OA MODELS MAIN OBSTACLES

37 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, BIOMED CENTRAL OA publisher for biomedicine Today 320 peer reviewed journals, most with IF Author keeps copyright Articles have high visibility (indexed in PubMed) Preservation is guaranteed PAGES CHARGES BMC Medicine (IF 5.75)

38 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, OPEN LETTER Free circulation of research results In October 2000 PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE Free access to publicly funded research results 7Journals 6Currents 4Blog Network 2Hubs Publication fee 1350 $ per article

39 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, AUTHOR PAYS to have his article OA Peer review is the same in OA and non OA articles THE HYBRID MODEL SPRINGER OPEN CHOICE (Euros 2000)

40 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, NEW MODELS ARE TESTED Articles are published online after revision : ahead of publication but public debate was allowed even before the review process Atmospheric chemistry and physics discussions

41 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Nature Precedings A persistent and citable archive of preliminary results Voting is intended to be an informal way of showing support for a researcher's work Nature journals will consider manuscripts that have already been circulated as preprints, but some other publishers will not

42 41 MESSAGE EDITORIAL PROCESS. Basic elements Sender Receiver CHANNELL Code Feedback noise The editorial process is a communication process: an agreement among sender and and receiver having the objective of transmitting knowledge

43 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, Actors of the EDITORIAL PROCESS authors editors publishers readers Referees Technical editors Translators Graphic designers Photographers Printers Web masters Librarians Information specialists Be aware of the role of each actor in the process to be able to understand and comply with their requirements

44 43 RESPONSIBILITIES To be pointed out in T2 courses Develop useful contents Select the appropriate document type Read instructions to authors Provide all information required by editors Do not cheat Etc. AUTHORS Organize and validate information Garantee publication integrity Create useful journals Write instructions for authors Specify steps of the editorial process Etc. EDITORS Guarantee quality of published papers Declare conflicts of interest Comply with schedules Respect privacy and confidentiality Etc. REFEREES

45 44 Receiving manuscripts First evaluation by editor in chief Peer review (reviewers/authors, reviewers, editor) Editor in chief (acceptance/modification/ rejection) SCIENTIFIC EDITING inside an editorial office Scientific editing – graphics (correction of drafts) Receiving proofs Article final copy Complete issue (including all articles) Blueprint Online dissemination Print Today all this is online

46 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, WRITING A JOURNAL ARTICLE a challange between tradition and innovation 1.evaluate scientific content and target 2.be familiar with technical requirements 3.be familiar with the publication ethics WARNING! BE AWARE OF EDITORIAL RULES AND BEST PRACTICES FORMATS OF SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES

47 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, SUMMARY of the main points Publication of scientific output is part of the research process and plays a basic role for science development Thanks to Internet, wide dissemination of scientific information (incluging data) is possible, economic models are changing, new metrics are possible Scientific communication has a direct influence of science policies which, in turn, have a direct impact on public health and population well-being Progress is reached through a mix of REALISM and IDEALISM: consider tradition and test new models NECOBELAC can contribute to develop scientific communication through new collaborations between Europe and Latin America


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