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The formats of scientific articles How to write a scientific paper Paola De Castro Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma P. De Castro The formats of scientific.

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Presentation on theme: "The formats of scientific articles How to write a scientific paper Paola De Castro Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma P. De Castro The formats of scientific."— Presentation transcript:

1 The formats of scientific articles How to write a scientific paper Paola De Castro Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 NECOBELAC Module

2 22 FIRST STEPS: basic questions WHAT are my resources? (budget and time) P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 WHY shall I write an article? (select target) WHICH information will I share? (select information) WHERE shall I publish it? (select journal) WHOM shall I write it with? (select co-authors) HOW shall I write an article?

3 33 SELECTION Journals (national, international, high IF, online, high rejection rate…) Books or chapters therein Technical reports, conference proceedings Leaflets Posters Conference papers/communications, PPTs Web documents (blogs, wikis, answers, etc.) P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 Scientific content, authors, target… Track the latest results Basic editorial rules and best practices applying to all publications Specific rules per publication type or discipline Editorial style of the journal Publication types BE FAMILIAR WITH RULES

4 44 Contributions within a journal P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 Editorials Comments Correspondence Viewpoints Original, research articles Review articles Case histories Book reviews Instructions to authors Table of contents Published articles REFER TO THE JOURNAL

5 55 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 NECOBELAC Topic maps

6 66 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 WRITING A JOURNAL ARTICLE … Title Abstract Key words Structure Illustrations References Authorship Conflicts of interest Copyright Privacy Be aware of the responsibilities of editors, authors, referees, editorial staff TECHNICAL ISSUES ETHICAL ISSUES ROLES

7 77 Instructions to authors for over 6,000 journals in the health and life sciences INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS First and last step for article writing. Submit to the right journal!

8 88 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 Authors guides within the journal What can I deposit in a repository?

9 99 BASIC SOURCES NECOBELAC pre-course reading Vancouver style P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 WHY? Concise Complete Easy Last up-dating April 2010 EASE guidelines for Authors in 19 languages

10 10 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 ICMJE and Vancouver style In Vancouver a SMALL GRUOP OF EDITORS (NEJM, BMJ, Ann Int Med, Lancet, etc.) met in 1978 INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF MEDICAL JOURNAL EDITORS (ICMJE) Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Medical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication Vancouver style

11 11 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 What is the Vancouver style? INITIALLY… Guidelines on standard formats of manuscripts and, in particular, bibliographic references TODAY de facto standard shared by the most prestigious medical journals (700)… It includes both manuscript preparation, and ethical issues

12 12 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 Instructions for authors refer to the Uniform requirements (ICMJE) or Vancouver style

13 13 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 Contents of Vancouver style I.Statement of Purpose II.Ethical Considerations in the Conduct and Reporting of Research III. Publishing and Editorial Issues related to Publication in Biomedical Journals IV. Manuscript preparation and submission

14 14 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 II. Ethical considerations A. Authorship B. Editorship C. Peer-review D. Conflict of interest E. Privacy F. Protection of Human Subjects and Animals in Research

15 15 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 II. Ethical considerations A. Authorship Authorship credit should be based on 1) Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data 2) Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content 3)Final approval of the version to be published. Who can be defined as author in the by-line? Funding, data collection or supervision does not allow authorship Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3.

16 16 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 WHICH ORDER for authors? Alphabetic order First, the project leader or person in charge of the Dpt Last, the person in charge Other order There must be agreement among authors II. Ethical considerations A. Authorship Guest, ghost, gift authors

17 17 PubMED - Advanced search allows search for last author

18 18 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 II. Considerazioni etiche. A. Authorship Examples of Group Authorship Name, surname, on behalf of the HPV Pathogen-ISS Study Group * Indicate ALL names of the group members in the Footnote or Appendix On behalf of the... Study group XXXX Study group

19 19 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 Domino effect in error duplication If group author is not clearly defined wrong publication wrong indexing wrong citation CREATE AWARENESS AMONG authors editors indexers II. Ethical considerations. A. Authorship

20 20 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 II. Ethical considerations. A. Authorship Searching Group authors in PubMed Insert CN (collective name) In your query for group author

21 21 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 II. Ethical considerations B. Editorship Editorial Board – Advisory Board Collaborate with editors to establish and maintain the journal editorial policy Editor (editor in chief) Person responsible for its entire content Editorial Freedom – The editor in chief has full authority of the editorial content Referees

22 22 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 II. Ethical considerations C. Peer Review Extention of the scientific proces It applies to both traditional and OA journals Peer review is widely debated topic, BUT there is no doubt that it helps - editors deciding which manuscripts are suitable for the journals - improving the quality of reporting DEFINITION Unbiased and independent assessment of manuscripts submitted to journals by experts (peers) who are not part of the editorial staff TYPES Blinded double blinded open VARIABLES No. of referees Times Procedures (online)

23 23 Pre-publication history of an article in BMC Public Health P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 Submission Review report Re-submissions Note on PRIVACY Reviewers comments should not be published without authors, reviewers and editors consent

24 24 REVISION: different levels of responsibility 2. INITIAL EDITORIAL REVIEW after submission (before peer review) P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, PEER REVIEW after submission read instructions to authors read again after some time (one-two days) use check lists A paper may be rejected if it is not compliant with journal scope and formats it has poor English 1. AUTHORS REVISION before submission Minor revisions Major revisions Revision improves quality and guarantees a learning opportunity Authors! Take it seriously! Be prepared to answer all points raised by reviewers 4. TECHNICAL EDITING after acceptance Journal editorial staff

25 25 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 II. Ethical considerations D. Conflicts of interest Conflicts of interests exist when an author his/her institution an editor a reviewer members of the editorial staff have financial or personal relations that inappropriately influence their actions and decisions (bias) These can have a negative influence on scientific judgement EXAMPLE of Disclosure of Conflicts

26 26 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 Ethical considerations E. Privacy and confidentiality It not only applies to PATIENTS and study participants Written informed consent This picture would not be suitable for publication but also to AUTHORS, EDITORS and REVIEWERS

27 27 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 III. Publishing and Editorial issues Corrections, Retractions and Expressions of Concern Editors-authors and scientific fraud (COPE) The number of Retractions is dramatically increasing (PubMed) Obligation to publish negative studies provided that they are statistically significant

28 28 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 III. Editorial issues COPYRIGHT Most scientific journals still ask for copyright transfer OA journals follow a different policy Authors should be able to negotiate their rights Creative Commons Licenses Copyright agreements strongly affects deposit in OA repositories

29 29 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 USEFUL TOOLS to manage copyright SPARC Author Addendum to secure your rights SHERPA/ROMEO publishers copyright policies & selfarchiving

30 30 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 STRUCTURE of a scientific article abstract title introduction materials and methods results discussion conclusions plus acknowledgements, if any references appendices, if any ATTENTION! Do not exceed the required number of words IV. Manuscript preparation

31 31 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 THE IMRAD STRUCTURE I ntroduction Background information State specific purpose of the study Limit references Do not include data or conclusions M aterial and methods Describe (patients, animals, etc.) Define material and equipment Illustrate procedures Compare with other methods A nd D iscussion and conclusions Stress only new aspects Do not repeat what was written in the methods Avoid conclusions which are not associated to reliable data R esults Show results in logical order Point out only relevant data

32 32 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 IV. Manuscript preparation Guidelines for the transparent reporting of health research It includes the major reporting guidelines for scientific research and guides for authors

33 33 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 IV. MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION Abstract and key words ABSTRACT Be carefully that it reflects the content of the article Report background, basic procedures, main findings in logical way KEY WORDS Use MESH terms (MEdical Subject Headings) ALWAYS FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS TYPES: Descriptive, informative, structured, graphical

34 34 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 MESH terms from the NLM MESH terms MEdical Subject Headings (NLM)

35 35 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 IV. Manuscript preparation Bibliographic references GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Include only essential references, in press papers may be accepted, but avoid personal communications Only some Journals check accuracy of the references Authors are responsible for their correctness REFERENCE STYLE AND FORMAT Authors should consult NLM Citing in medicine References should be numbered consecutively in the text

36 36 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 EXAMPLES for Articles in journals Books Other published material Unpublished material Electronic material NLM – Citing in Medicine

37 37 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 Basic elements of citation Author (personal or group) Title of the cited document Container (journal, book, etc.) Year of publication Other data publisher, city for books vol. and pages for journals

38 38 P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 Tables and figures FOR ALL IMAGES Comply with instructions to authors Verify that they are mentioned in the text Check consistency of data with text Include them in separate files Number them consecutively Make captions self sufficient Check copyright …. Units of measurement (IS) Abbreviations and Symbols WHEN AND HOW TO USE THEM? Tables details Graphs trends Include only necessary data A figure is worth 1000 words

39 39 The cover letter your chance to speak to the editor Editor name(s) Originality of submission No competing financial interests Desired reviewers Corresponding author P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 BASIC INFORMATION TO BE INCLUDED Do not summarize the paper, but say why it is special for the journal Last, but not least…

40 Any Question? Thank you Paola De Castro P. De Castro The formats of scientific articles NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012


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