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Chapter 26 The Atmosphere, Energy in Earth’s Processes, Insolation, Greenhouse Effect, Specific Heat, & Isotherms BFRB 228 – 236, 193 – 197, 170 – 174.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26 The Atmosphere, Energy in Earth’s Processes, Insolation, Greenhouse Effect, Specific Heat, & Isotherms BFRB 228 – 236, 193 – 197, 170 – 174."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 26 The Atmosphere, Energy in Earth’s Processes, Insolation, Greenhouse Effect, Specific Heat, & Isotherms BFRB 228 – 236, 193 – 197, 170 – 174

2 Meteorology The study of weatherThe study of weather Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at any given time or placeWeather is the condition of the atmosphere at any given time or place Much of weather forecasting and prediction can be accomplished by direct observation – LOOK OUT THE WINDOW!!Much of weather forecasting and prediction can be accomplished by direct observation – LOOK OUT THE WINDOW!! To predict weather, you must make observations of the clouds, wind, temperature, humidity, air pressure and precipitationTo predict weather, you must make observations of the clouds, wind, temperature, humidity, air pressure and precipitation

3 Atmospheric Composition The Earth’s atmosphere is made up of many gases, but it is mostly (99%) nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%) (ESRT’s Page 1 bottom)The Earth’s atmosphere is made up of many gases, but it is mostly (99%) nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%) (ESRT’s Page 1 bottom) It also contains (the other 1%) H2O (water vapor), Ar (Argon) dust, CO 2 (Carbon Dioxide), CH 4 (Methane) and ozone – O 3 (a triple atom form of oxygen which absorbs UVC rays from the sun)It also contains (the other 1%) H2O (water vapor), Ar (Argon) dust, CO 2 (Carbon Dioxide), CH 4 (Methane) and ozone – O 3 (a triple atom form of oxygen which absorbs UVC rays from the sun) As you go higher in the atmosphere, the amount of air above you decreases and thus air pressure (weight of air) decreases!As you go higher in the atmosphere, the amount of air above you decreases and thus air pressure (weight of air) decreases!

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7 Structure of the Atmosphere Made up of five layers, each with different characteristics (ESRT’s Page 14 top only shows FOUR layers)Made up of five layers, each with different characteristics (ESRT’s Page 14 top only shows FOUR layers) Troposphere- lowest layer (we live in this layer). All of Earth’s weather occurs in the troposphere because this is where all of the water vapor Is located. Temperature decreases as you go higher.Troposphere- lowest layer (we live in this layer). All of Earth’s weather occurs in the troposphere because this is where all of the water vapor Is located. Temperature decreases as you go higher. Stratosphere- above the troposphere, has strong winds. Temperature increases as you go higher because of the absorption of UV rays by ozone.Stratosphere- above the troposphere, has strong winds. Temperature increases as you go higher because of the absorption of UV rays by ozone. Mesosphere- above the stratosphere. Temperature decreases as you go higher.Mesosphere- above the stratosphere. Temperature decreases as you go higher. Thermosphere- above the mesosphere. Temperature increases as you go higher due to oxygen and nitrogen absorbing solar energyThermosphere- above the mesosphere. Temperature increases as you go higher due to oxygen and nitrogen absorbing solar energy FYI - Ionosphere- above the thermosphere. This is where the sun’s solar winds get refracted off of the ions to create the Aurora Borealis (NH) and the Aurora Australis (SH)FYI - Ionosphere- above the thermosphere. This is where the sun’s solar winds get refracted off of the ions to create the Aurora Borealis (NH) and the Aurora Australis (SH)

8 ESRT’s Page 14 top Ionosphere is up here….

9 Movement of Heat – 3 Ways Movement of Heat – 3 Ways This is review from Plate Tectonics 1) Conduction- the movement of heat from molecule to molecule through contact with each other or other objects1) Conduction- the movement of heat from molecule to molecule through contact with each other or other objects –Ex. Touching a hot pot on the stove

10 2) Radiation- the movement of Electromagnetic Energy (heat waves) across a distance through ANY media (including empty space!)2) Radiation- the movement of Electromagnetic Energy (heat waves) across a distance through ANY media (including empty space!) –Ex. Warming your hands in front of a fireplace Earth receives EM energy radiated from the sun at relatively short wavelengths (visible and UV), and Earth reradiates this heat energy at longer wavelengths known as Infrared waves (heat)Earth receives EM energy radiated from the sun at relatively short wavelengths (visible and UV), and Earth reradiates this heat energy at longer wavelengths known as Infrared waves (heat) Energy received on Earth from the sun is called Insolation (incoming solar radiation)Energy received on Earth from the sun is called Insolation (incoming solar radiation) Movement of Heat Movement of Heat – 3 Ways

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12 3) Convection- the movement of heat in currents due to differences in density3) Convection- the movement of heat in currents due to differences in density The most effective form of heat transfer in liquids and gases (fluids)The most effective form of heat transfer in liquids and gases (fluids) –Air gets heated and expands – the molecules move apart - makes it less dense and lighter…it rises! –Colder air – molecules come together - is more dense and heavier so it sinks –It gets heated it rises, it cools it sinks –Just like in the putty-like asthenosphere!!!!! Movement of Heat – 3 Ways

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16 CONVECTION CURRENT IN THE ATMOSPHERE DUE TO DENSITY DIFFERENCES!!!!!!!!!

17 Insolation is a one word expression for INcoming SOLar radiATIONInsolation is a one word expression for INcoming SOLar radiATION It is the energy that the Earth receives from the Sun.It is the energy that the Earth receives from the Sun. The amount of insolation varies with changes in latitude and the angle that the insolation hits the surface of the Earth.The amount of insolation varies with changes in latitude and the angle that the insolation hits the surface of the Earth. This is due to the variation of Earth’s tilt on its axis in relation to the sun’s rays as it revolves.This is due to the variation of Earth’s tilt on its axis in relation to the sun’s rays as it revolves. What is InSolAtion?

18 In this example, the insolation is concentrated in a small area. More energy per unit area is hitting the surface. This would be the Equatorial part of Earth. In this example, the same amount of insolation is spread out over a larger area. Less energy per unit area is hitting the surface. This would be 45° North or South of the Equator.

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21 Figure 1. A schematic of the electromagnetic spectrum, showing the Sun's energy output in relation to wavelength. Most of the Sun’s radiation is in what part(s) of the EM spectrum?

22 Greenhouse Effect Certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapor (natural), carbon dioxide (burning of Fossil Fuels, methane (emissions from livestock - lol!), decomposition of sewage), etc.) allow short wavelengths of energy from the sun to enter the atmosphere. The Sun’s shorter wavelengths pass right thru…Certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapor (natural), carbon dioxide (burning of Fossil Fuels, methane (emissions from livestock - lol!), decomposition of sewage), etc.) allow short wavelengths of energy from the sun to enter the atmosphere. The Sun’s shorter wavelengths pass right thru… Earth’s surface absorbs the shorter wavelengths, heats up and reradiates the heat as infrared (heat) waves, which have longer wavelengthsEarth’s surface absorbs the shorter wavelengths, heats up and reradiates the heat as infrared (heat) waves, which have longer wavelengths Most of these longer wavelengths escape back into space, but some of the infrared waves are trapped by these gases and don’t escape, so they become trapped in the atmosphere as heat.Most of these longer wavelengths escape back into space, but some of the infrared waves are trapped by these gases and don’t escape, so they become trapped in the atmosphere as heat. This causesthe temperature on Earth to increase.This causes the temperature on Earth to increase. This is a positive and necessary process that has made our atmosphere warm enough for evolution to occur and humans to be able to live on Earth!This is a positive and necessary process that has made our atmosphere warm enough for evolution to occur and humans to be able to live on Earth!

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24 Why we call it the “Greenhouse Effect”

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26 This HUMAN ENHANCED (aka Anthropomorphic or Anthropogenic) Greenhouse Effect is the cause of CLIMATE CHANGE – otherwise known as Global Warming.

27 1. Introduction The greenhouse effect is responsible for the Earth’s warm, livable atmosphere. Gases like methane and carbon dioxide trap heat near the surface, keeping the Earth about 33° C (60° F) warmer than it would be without its natural blanket of protective gas. The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon, but human activity can enhance its effect and destabilize the climate. 2. Gases Water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, CFCs, ozone and nitrous oxide are all greenhouse gases (GHGs). Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important, followed in descending order by methane, CFCs, ozone and nitrous oxide. Climate scientists say human activities that pour enormous volumes of these gases into the atmosphere are raising the planet’s temperature. Some of these activities are the burning of fossil fuels and the deforestation of the Earth. 3. Sun The sun sends energy toward Earth in the form of light and radiation. We experience solar radiation as light and warmth on a sunny day 4. Atmosphere When the sun’s rays strike the atmosphere, some of the radiation is immediately reflected into space. The radiation that gets through the atmosphere heads toward the Earth’s surface. 5. Earth Solar radiation that passes through the Earth’s clear atmosphere is absorbed by the ground, water, plants and other objects. As the sun warms objects, they emit infrared radiation. This is the energy we know as heat. A portion of the solar radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface — particularly areas covered by ice, snow or the ocean — also bounces back into space, where its heat energy dissipates. 6. Heat and gases Molecules of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere absorb infrared radiation and release heat, which raises the temperature of the ground and air and warms the Earth’s surface. Infrared radiation has a longer wavelength than visible light, so it is easier for molecules like carbon dioxide and water vapor to absorb energy and trap the sun’s energy beneath Earth’s atmosphere. 7. Into space Some infrared radiation continues on its path out of the atmosphere and into space.

28 Temperature Changes on Earth Temperature changes with seasonal change occur because the sun’s insolation strikes Earth at different angles (and therefore different intensities)Temperature changes with seasonal change occur because the sun’s insolation strikes Earth at different angles (and therefore different intensities) Where the sun’s rays strike Earth at 90°, the insolation is concentrated in a smaller area. This causes temperatures to be the greatest.Where the sun’s rays strike Earth at 90°, the insolation is concentrated in a smaller area. This causes temperatures to be the greatest. Where the sun’s rays hit Earth at very low angles, the insolation is spread out over a large area. This causes temperatures to be low.Where the sun’s rays hit Earth at very low angles, the insolation is spread out over a large area. This causes temperatures to be low.

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30 Warmest and Coldest Months Northern Hemisphere-Northern Hemisphere- –Maximum sunlight is June 21st, but maximum temperature is in July – there is a lag!!! –Minimum sunlight is December 21st, but minimum temperatures are experienced in January – there is a lag!!! It takes time for the heat to build up, and for maximum temperatures to be reachedIt takes time for the heat to build up, and for maximum temperatures to be reached Also, it takes time for heat to dissipate (go away), and for minimum temperatures to be reachedAlso, it takes time for heat to dissipate (go away), and for minimum temperatures to be reached

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32 Warmest and Coldest Time of Day The coldest hour is usually just before sunrise, since the Earth has been cooling off all night – there is a lag!!!!The coldest hour is usually just before sunrise, since the Earth has been cooling off all night – there is a lag!!!! The warmest time is later in the afternoon (after solar noon), since the Earth is still receiving more heat than it is losing – there is a lag!!!The warmest time is later in the afternoon (after solar noon), since the Earth is still receiving more heat than it is losing – there is a lag!!!

33 As the insolation is absorbed by the Earth, the temperature will continue to increase if absorption exceeds radiation. The earth absorbs more heat than it radiates into the afternoon, therefore the highest temps are not at Solar noon, but later on!

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35 Why is there a Daily and Seasonal Lag between the time of maximum intensity of insolation and highest temperatures? Heating of Water and Land Water and land heat up and cool off at different rates because they have different properties.Water and land heat up and cool off at different rates because they have different properties. This is due to their different heat capacities AKA SPECIFIC HEAT (P. 1 of ESRT’s)This is due to their different heat capacities AKA SPECIFIC HEAT (P. 1 of ESRT’s) Land needs very little energy to heat up (low heat capacity)Land needs very little energy to heat up (low heat capacity) –This allows land to heat up quickly, and also to cool down quickly Water needs more energy to heat up (high heat capacity)Water needs more energy to heat up (high heat capacity) –This allows water to heat up slowly and to cool off slowly - –WATER IS STUBBORN!!! It takes a long time to heat up and a long time to cool down…

36 ESRT Page 1 What is specific heat? What is a Joule/gram ● ⁰ C ? Liquid water has the highest specific heat value The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by 1 degree Celsius or Kelvin

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38 How do the specific heats of land and water affect the rate at which they heat up and cool down?

39 Air temperature and other weather conditions of different locations are affected by how near or far they are from water (oceans) due to heat capacityAir temperature and other weather conditions of different locations are affected by how near or far they are from water (oceans) due to heat capacity VIF - Water has a mitigating effect to extremes of temperature and climateVIF - Water has a mitigating effect to extremes of temperature and climate For example, a coastal city may have a average annual high of 75 ° and an average annual low of 40 °. (35 ° range)For example, a coastal city may have a average annual high of 75 ° and an average annual low of 40 °. (35 ° range) An inland city may have an average annual high of 82 ° and an average annual low of 33 °. (49 ° range)An inland city may have an average annual high of 82 ° and an average annual low of 33 °. (49 ° range) The coastal city is near the water, so the water’s temperature doesn’t change as quickly as the land’s temperature due to water’s high specific heat.The coastal city is near the water, so the water’s temperature doesn’t change as quickly as the land’s temperature due to water’s high specific heat. How Does Water’s High Specific Heat Affect Weather & Climate?

40 Case study of an inland vs. a coastal city’s climate

41 Dark colors absorb energy well, and light colors reflect energy well (think...dark color clothes in winter, light colors clothes in summer)Dark colors absorb energy well, and light colors reflect energy well (think...dark color clothes in winter, light colors clothes in summer) Rough surfaces absorb energy well, while smooth surfaces reflect energy well (think…a mirror is smooth and reflects your image really well.)Rough surfaces absorb energy well, while smooth surfaces reflect energy well (think…a mirror is smooth and reflects your image really well.) VIF – The best ABSORBERS make the best EMITTERS of energy.VIF – The best ABSORBERS make the best EMITTERS of energy. This is why radiators (heaters) are often black in color!!!This is why radiators (heaters) are often black in color!!! The Rules of Absorber and Reflectors

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45 Smooth Surfaces reflect Better than rough surfaces, therefore rough surfaces will absorb more insolation than smooth surfaces and will become hotter.

46 Chapter 28 Atmospheric Pressure and Winds Lows & Highs BFRB Pages Pressure & Winds P. 172-180 Lows & Highs P. 180-182

47 Relative Humidity is determined by using a hygrometer or a sling psychrometer measured as a % Wind speed is measured using an anemometer (units are knots; 1 knot = 1.15 mph) Wind speed is measured using an anemometer (units are knots; 1 knot = 1.15 mph) Meteorology Instruments Wind direction is determined by using a wind vane or a wind sock (like you see at the airport) measured as a compass direction N, S, NE, SW, etc. Temperature is determined by using a thermometer measured in °C,°F, or K Pressure is determined by using a barometer measured in millibars (mb) or inches of Hg (in) wind vane Amount of precip is measured by using a rain gauge measured in inches or cm

48 Air Pressure the weight of the air in a certain areathe weight of the air in a certain area Air pressure is measured using an instrument called a barometer (aneroid or mercury)Air pressure is measured using an instrument called a barometer (aneroid or mercury) It is measured in inches (height of the mercury column in the barometer), or with the metric units called millibarsIt is measured in inches (height of the mercury column in the barometer), or with the metric units called millibars Use your reference tables for “converting” inches to millibarsUse your reference tables for “converting” inches to millibars (ESRT’s Page 13 Right Top)(ESRT’s Page 13 Right Top)

49 Right here tells you which side is millibars and which side is inchesRight here tells you which side is millibars and which side is inches FYI – the increments are not the same on both sides. Figure out each sides’ increments and write them in right now…FYI – the increments are not the same on both sides. Figure out each sides’ increments and write them in right now… Inches: Increment = __________ Millibars:

50 Air pressure decreases with increasing altitude (less air above you means less pressure pushing down on you)Air pressure decreases with increasing altitude (less air above you means less pressure pushing down on you) This is an inverse (indirect) relationshipThis is an inverse (indirect) relationship Weather maps show sea level air pressure. It ranges from 960mb – 1050mbWeather maps show sea level air pressure. It ranges from 960mb – 1050mb Isobars are lines on the weather maps which connect areas of equal air pressureIsobars are lines on the weather maps which connect areas of equal air pressure VIF!!!! - The same rules apply for isobars as isotherms and contour lines. If the isobars are spaced close together, the pressure gradient is steep and winds are fast.VIF!!!! - The same rules apply for isobars as isotherms and contour lines. If the isobars are spaced close together, the pressure gradient is steep and winds are fast. Changes in Air Pressure

51 How does temperature affect air pressure?How does temperature affect air pressure? Warm air’s molecules are further apart than cold air’s molecules!Warm air’s molecules are further apart than cold air’s molecules! It is less dense and not as many molecules are on top of an area to add pressure.It is less dense and not as many molecules are on top of an area to add pressure. Therefore, as temperature increases, air pressure _________________.Therefore, as temperature increases, air pressure _________________. This is a(n) ______________ relationship.This is a(n) ______________ relationship.

52 Changes in Air Pressure How does humidity (the amount of water vapor held in a parcel of air) affect air pressure?How does humidity (the amount of water vapor held in a parcel of air) affect air pressure? Humid (moist) air contains more water vapor molecules (H 2 O)Humid (moist) air contains more water vapor molecules (H 2 O) These H 2 O molecules have less atomic mass than N 2 and O 2 molecules that they take the place of!!!These H 2 O molecules have less atomic mass than N 2 and O 2 molecules that they take the place of!!! Let’s PROVE it!!!!!Let’s PROVE it!!!!!

53 Changes in Air Pressure How does humidity (the amount of water vapor held in a parcel of air) affect air pressure?How does humidity (the amount of water vapor held in a parcel of air) affect air pressure? OK so we just proved that humid air actually weighs less than dry air.OK so we just proved that humid air actually weighs less than dry air. So, as humidity increases, air pressure ____________________.So, as humidity increases, air pressure ____________________. This is a(n)_________________ relationship.This is a(n)_________________ relationship.

54 Winds and Air Pressure Winds are caused by the unequal heating of the atmosphere (remember that temperature causes changes in air pressure)Winds are caused by the unequal heating of the atmosphere (remember that temperature causes changes in air pressure) Warm air is lighter (lower pressure) and colder air is heavier (higher pressure)Warm air is lighter (lower pressure) and colder air is heavier (higher pressure) Remember…warm stuff rises and cold stuff sinks…Remember…warm stuff rises and cold stuff sinks… –Ex: Sea breezes and land breezes

55 Sea Breeze – the surface wind is blowing in FROM the sea.

56 Land Breeze – the surface wind is blowing out FROM the land.

57 Another view of sea breezes and land breezes…

58 Winds blow out of high pressure and into low pressureWinds blow out of high pressure and into low pressure The greater the difference between the high pressure and low pressure, the faster the wind speed (this is called the pressure gradient)The greater the difference between the high pressure and low pressure, the faster the wind speed (this is called the pressure gradient) This is shown on a weather map by closely spaced isobars (think of closely space contour lines on a topographic map – steeper slope)This is shown on a weather map by closely spaced isobars (think of closely space contour lines on a topographic map – steeper slope) Air Pressure’s Effect on Winds on a Larger Scale

59 Isobars are ___________ spaced resulting in a ___________ pressure gradient and ___________ winds.

60 What parts of the US and Canada have the fastest winds? the slowest?

61 ISOTHERMS Temperatures are shown on maps by using IsothermsTemperatures are shown on maps by using Isotherms These are lines which connect areas of equal temperatureThese are lines which connect areas of equal temperature These are very similar to contour lines, and the same rules apply!!These are very similar to contour lines, and the same rules apply!! Example – closely spaced isotherms mean a fast change in temperature (steep temp gradient) the same way closely spaced contour lines mean a fast change in elevation (steep land gradient).Example – closely spaced isotherms mean a fast change in temperature (steep temp gradient) the same way closely spaced contour lines mean a fast change in elevation (steep land gradient).

62 Where in the US is the steepest temperature gradient? Where is the gentlest temperature gradient?

63 Coriolis Revisited! The Coriolis Effect (caused by the spin of the Earth) causes winds to bend to the right in the northern hemisphereThe Coriolis Effect (caused by the spin of the Earth) causes winds to bend to the right in the northern hemisphere Winds blow out of the High and in to the Low and bend to the right, causing a High Pressure System to spin clockwiseWinds blow out of the High and in to the Low and bend to the right, causing a High Pressure System to spin clockwise Winds blow into the Low from the High and bend to the right, causing the Low Pressure System to spin counter-clockwiseWinds blow into the Low from the High and bend to the right, causing the Low Pressure System to spin counter-clockwise FYI - Hurricanes are areas of extreme low pressure and always flow counter- clockwise in the Northern HemisphereFYI - Hurricanes are areas of extreme low pressure and always flow counter- clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere

64 In a High, the air wants to move directly out from High to Low Pressure but is deflected to its right by the Coriolis Effect, creating a Clockwise flow out from the High. VIF!!!!!! H

65 In a Low, the air wants to move directly in from High to Low Pressure but is deflected to its right by the Coriolis Effect creating a Counterclockwise flow into the Low. VIF!!!!!! L

66 MEASURING WIND Wind direction is determined by using a wind vane or a wind sock (like you see at the airport)Wind direction is determined by using a wind vane or a wind sock (like you see at the airport) Wind speed is measured using an anemometer (units are knots; 1 knot = 1.15 mph)Wind speed is measured using an anemometer (units are knots; 1 knot = 1.15 mph)

67 Global Wind Circulation Pressure Belts and Winds The jet stream is a narrow zone of high speed air found in the upper troposphere (about 30,000 feet)The jet stream is a narrow zone of high speed air found in the upper troposphere (about 30,000 feet) –Wind speeds here may be over 300 knots! Large convection currents of air occur on the Earth’s surface due to the unequal heating of the atmosphereLarge convection currents of air occur on the Earth’s surface due to the unequal heating of the atmosphere ESRT’s Page 14 Bottom

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69 Global Wind Circulation ESRT’s Page 14 Bottom These planetary winds shift with the seasons due to the changing insolation because of Earth’s tilt! Astronomy connection!!! These planetary winds shift with the seasons due to the changing insolation because of Earth’s tilt! Astronomy connection!!!

70 3-D Version of the ESRT’s Please note the deflection of the wind to ITS right in the N.H. due to Coriolis Effect

71 This is what the air circulation would look like if the Earth DID NOT ROTATE – NO Coriolis Effect!!!!!!

72 Chapter 27 The Water Cycle, Relative Humidity, Dew Point, Clouds, Specific Heat, Orographic Effect The Water Cycle, Relative Humidity, Dew Point, Clouds, Specific Heat, Orographic Effect BFRB Pages BFRB Pages Atmospheric Moisture 174-179 Specific Heat P. 197-200 Orographic Effect P. 237

73 Water exists as a solid, liquid, and gasexists as a solid, liquid, and gas can change from one state to another by adding or removing energy (heat)can change from one state to another by adding or removing energy (heat) Fusion - the changing of state of matter of water between a solid and a liquidFusion - the changing of state of matter of water between a solid and a liquid From a solid to a liquid is called melting, liquid to a solid is called freezingFrom a solid to a liquid is called melting, liquid to a solid is called freezing Properties of water on P. 1 of ESRT’sProperties of water on P. 1 of ESRT’s Heat of Fusion = +/- 334 J/g/°CHeat of Fusion = +/- 334 J/g/°C Add (+) 334 J/g/°C of heat to melt ice to waterAdd (+) 334 J/g/°C of heat to melt ice to water Take away (-) 334 J/g/°C of heat to freeze water to iceTake away (-) 334 J/g/°C of heat to freeze water to ice

74 Water Solid to liquid Liquid to solid Liquid to vapor Vapor to liquid Think of 3.98° C as 4° C!!! Round it… Water is most dense as a liquid at 4° C (solid ice which has a temp of < 0° C density < 1.0 g/cm 3 so it floats!!!) Water is most dense as a liquid at 4° C (solid ice which has a temp of < 0° C has a density < 1.0 g/cm 3 so it floats!!!)

75 Water How many Joules of energy would it take to melt 3 g of ice into liquid water? How many Joules of energy would be released if 3.2 g of water vapor condensed into liquid water?

76 GAS LIQUID SOLID Energy is absorbed by the water molecules as they change from solid to liquid to gasEnergy is absorbed by the water molecules as they change from solid to liquid to gas This gives them more energy and allows them to move faster and move further apart! Do the molecule dance!!!This gives them more energy and allows them to move faster and move further apart! Do the molecule dance!!!

77 Evaporation the process of water changing from a liquid to a gasthe process of water changing from a liquid to a gas occurs when water absorbs energy from its surroundings and becomes warmer.occurs when water absorbs energy from its surroundings and becomes warmer. because water sucks the heat energy from its surroundings, evaporation results in the surroundings becoming cooler (think of sweating)because water sucks the heat energy from its surroundings, evaporation results in the surroundings becoming cooler (think of sweating) Liquid water absorbs heat energy to become a vapor so….Liquid water absorbs heat energy to become a vapor so…. Heat of Vaporization = + 2260 Joules/gram/°C

78 Each gram of water is absorbing 2,260 Joules of energy to change its temperature by 1º Celsius and change from a liquid to gas (vapor). The surroundings (air) are cooling because the water needs to ABSORB the heat from somewhere!!! The heat is being absorbed from the air surrounding the water!!!

79 EVAPORATION IS A COOLING PROCESS

80 Condensation the process of water changing from a gas to a liquidthe process of water changing from a gas to a liquid occurs when water vapor loses energy (releases heat into its surroundings)occurs when water vapor loses energy (releases heat into its surroundings) Because of this, condensation results in the surroundings getting warmer (the air surrounding the condensing water droplets heats up)Because of this, condensation results in the surroundings getting warmer (the air surrounding the condensing water droplets heats up) Water vapor loses heat energy to become a liquid so….Water vapor loses heat energy to become a liquid so…. Heat of Vaporization = - 2260 Joules/gram/°C

81 WARM TEMPS = EVAPORATION COOL TEMPS = CONDENSATION (but the surrounding air actually heats up a little as the air condenses and releases the stored energy)COOL TEMPS = CONDENSATION (but the surrounding air actually heats up a little as the air condenses and releases the stored energy) Each gram of water is releasing 2,260 Joules of energy into its surroundings to change its temperature by 1º Celsius and change from a gas (vapor) to a liquid.

82 CONDENSATION IS A WARMING PROCESS

83 Back to Evaporation… What 3 factors affect how quickly water evaporates?What 3 factors affect how quickly water evaporates? 1)1) 2)2) 3)3)

84 Rate of Evaporation… Temperature – The higher the temperature, the ______________ water will evaporate.Temperature – The higher the temperature, the ______________ water will evaporate. This is a _________ relationship.This is a _________ relationship. Think about it. Do you put clothes into a hot dryer or a cold dryer to dry them quickly?Think about it. Do you put clothes into a hot dryer or a cold dryer to dry them quickly?

85 Rate of Evaporation… Humidity – The higher the humidity, the ______________ water will evaporate.Humidity – The higher the humidity, the ______________ water will evaporate. This is a _________ relationship.This is a _________ relationship. Think about it… Do you dry off faster in the steamy bathroom after you shower, or in your dry bedroom?Think about it… Do you dry off faster in the steamy bathroom after you shower, or in your dry bedroom?

86 Rate of Evaporation… Wind – The higher the wind speed, the ______________ water will evaporate.Wind – The higher the wind speed, the ______________ water will evaporate. This is a _________ relationship.This is a _________ relationship. Think about it… does your hairdryer just get hot, or does it blow the hot air at you in order to dry your hair quickly?Think about it… does your hairdryer just get hot, or does it blow the hot air at you in order to dry your hair quickly?

87 Water Vapor in the Air The amount of water vapor in the air depends on the air temperatureThe amount of water vapor in the air depends on the air temperature The warmer the air, the more water vapor it can contain (think of those hot, humid summer days)The warmer the air, the more water vapor it can contain (think of those hot, humid summer days) The actual amount of water vapor in the air is called absolute humidityThe actual amount of water vapor in the air is called absolute humidity This is measured in grams per liter.This is measured in grams per liter.

88 Relative Humidity This is the amount of water vapor in the air, compared to the maximum amount of water vapor the air could contain at that temperatureThis is the amount of water vapor in the air, compared to the maximum amount of water vapor the air could contain at that temperature Relative humidity is a percent measurementRelative humidity is a percent measurement Air with 100% humidity is said to be saturated (that temp air can’t contain any more water vapor)Air with 100% humidity is said to be saturated (that temp air can’t contain any more water vapor) – Precipitation (rain/snow/sleet) or condensation (dew/frost) will occur

89 Finding Relative Humidity Use an instrument called a hygrometerUse an instrument called a hygrometer One particular type of hygrometer is called a sling psychrometerOne particular type of hygrometer is called a sling psychrometer –This instrument is made of two thermometers attached to a handle –One thermometer has a piece of gauze (called a sock) which is the soaked with water. This is called the WET BULBThis is called the WET BULB The other thermometer is called the DRY BULBThe other thermometer is called the DRY BULB –These thermometers are swung in the air for a few minutes, and then the temperatures are recorded (take the wet bulb temperature first) The wet bulb thermometer should have a lower temperature, since it removes heat from the thermometer as water evaporates from it. Remember, evaporation is a cooling process!!!The wet bulb thermometer should have a lower temperature, since it removes heat from the thermometer as water evaporates from it. Remember, evaporation is a cooling process!!! The two temperatures are then used to look up the relative humidity on a chart (ESRT’s Page 12 BOTTOM)The two temperatures are then used to look up the relative humidity on a chart (ESRT’s Page 12 BOTTOM)

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91 Why do you think the SE part of the US has a higher relative humidity? Why do you think the Pacific NW coast has a high relative humidity? Why do the Rockies and Midwest parts of the US have low relative humidities?

92 Condensation and Dew VIF - remember that air’s ability to contain moisture decreases as the temperature decreasesVIF - remember that air’s ability to contain moisture decreases as the temperature decreases As the air cools, its relative humidity increases EVEN THOUGH IT CONTAINS THE SAME AMOUNT OF WATER VAPOR, THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY INCREASES, BECAUSE ITS ABILITY TO HOLD THE WATER VAPOR DECREASES.As the air cools, its relative humidity increases EVEN THOUGH IT CONTAINS THE SAME AMOUNT OF WATER VAPOR, THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY INCREASES, BECAUSE ITS ABILITY TO HOLD THE WATER VAPOR DECREASES. When the relative humidity reaches 100% (saturated), the water condenses out of the air as liquid droplets or ice crystalsWhen the relative humidity reaches 100% (saturated), the water condenses out of the air as liquid droplets or ice crystals The temperature at which this will occur is called the dew pointThe temperature at which this will occur is called the dew point **The dew point can be found using the same method for relative humidity, except use the dew point chart (ESRT’s Page 12 TOP)**The dew point can be found using the same method for relative humidity, except use the dew point chart (ESRT’s Page 12 TOP)

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94 VIF – MAKE SURE THAT YOU USE THE CORRECT TABLE. BECAUSE I CAN GUARANTEE YOU THAT THE # FROM THE OTHER TABLE WILL BE ONE OF THE CHOICES THAT THE “EVIL ONES” PROVIDE!!!!

95 Condensation can only occur if the water has something to condense onCondensation can only occur if the water has something to condense on VIF - Tiny particles in the air on which water molecules condense are called condensation nucleiVIF - Tiny particles in the air on which water molecules condense are called condensation nuclei This can be dust, salts, volcanic ash, soot from forest fires, chemicals from burning fuel, etc.This can be dust, salts, volcanic ash, soot from forest fires, chemicals from burning fuel, etc. * Water vapor that condenses on the ground is called dew (think of walking across wet grass in the morning)* Water vapor that condenses on the ground is called dew (think of walking across wet grass in the morning) If the dew freezes on the ground, it is called frostIf the dew freezes on the ground, it is called frost Water vapor condensing in the air forms cloudsWater vapor condensing in the air forms clouds If the cloud forms close to the ground, it is called fogIf the cloud forms close to the ground, it is called fog Condensation and Dew

96 Dew Frost

97 Fog in San Francisco – Cloud formed on the ground…

98 Clouds - (This is FYI – you DO NOT need to memorize the types of clouds, but you should know that they exist at different altitudes and are associated with different air masses…) formed by the condensation of water vaporformed by the condensation of water vapor There are three main types of clouds: cumulus, stratus, and cirrusThere are three main types of clouds: cumulus, stratus, and cirrus –Cumulus clouds are thick, puffy clouds. They tend to be lower in the sky –Stratus clouds appear as low to middle sheets or layers of clouds –Cirrus clouds appear as high, thin or “feathery” clouds. These clouds are made of ice crystals There are many forms of these types of cloudsThere are many forms of these types of clouds –Ex. Cumulonimbus clouds often produce strong thunderstorms and can form tornadoes!! –Nimbus – rain/storm in Latin – if you combine the above 3 type names with nimbus or nimbo, it means that the cloud produces precipitation.

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100 CLOUDS have FLAT BOTTOMS which show where the dew point temperature has been reached and the cloud starts to form! This is called the CLOUD BASE

101 Cumulus clouds that are white and puffy like cotton balls are "fair weather" clouds and are unlikely to produce precipitationCumulus clouds that are white and puffy like cotton balls are "fair weather" clouds and are unlikely to produce precipitation They form in warm air on sunny daysThey form in warm air on sunny days Cumulus clouds can form at almost any altitude, with bases sometimes as high as 14,000 feetCumulus clouds can form at almost any altitude, with bases sometimes as high as 14,000 feet

102 Cumulus clouds are clouds of vertical development and may grow upwards dramatically under certain circumstancesCumulus clouds are clouds of vertical development and may grow upwards dramatically under certain circumstances The updrafts may be caused by intense heating of the air by the ground surface, the action of a cold front, or by extreme temperature differences between land and waterThe updrafts may be caused by intense heating of the air by the ground surface, the action of a cold front, or by extreme temperature differences between land and water The vertical air currents results in towering clouds with an anvil head on top called cumulonimbus cloudsThe vertical air currents results in towering clouds with an anvil head on top called cumulonimbus clouds

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106 Stratus clouds are low clouds, ranging in height from near the earth's surface up to 6,500 feetStratus clouds are low clouds, ranging in height from near the earth's surface up to 6,500 feet Stratus clouds form flat layers or uniform sheetsStratus clouds form flat layers or uniform sheets –Only a fine drizzle can form from stratus clouds because there is no vertical development –Nimbostratus (nimbo = rain) clouds produce long periods of steady rain

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109 Cirrus clouds are wispy in appearance, and resemble horsetails of a running horse (they are sometimes called mares' tails)Cirrus clouds are wispy in appearance, and resemble horsetails of a running horse (they are sometimes called mares' tails) They are among the highest clouds, forming at elevations of 25,000 feet and above, where the temperatures are far below freezingThey are among the highest clouds, forming at elevations of 25,000 feet and above, where the temperatures are far below freezing Cirrus clouds are formed almost entirely of tiny ice crystalsCirrus clouds are formed almost entirely of tiny ice crystals

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112 These are called cirrocumulus clouds because they are very high (cirrus), but have the cumulus (puffy) appearance, not the wispy appearance of regular cirrus clouds…

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114 Precipitation any form of water that falls from the clouds when they become too massive be supported by the rising airany form of water that falls from the clouds when they become too massive be supported by the rising air Forms of precipitation include:Forms of precipitation include: –Rain –Snow –Sleet – rain that falls through air that is below freezing –Freezing rain – rain that freezes on contact with a surface that is below freezing (the ground) –Hail – formed in cumulonimbus clouds (thunderstorms). These are ice balls which can be as large as a softball!! HAIL ONLY HAPPENS IN THE SUMMERTIME!!!! **When water condenses on nitrate and sulfate particles (from burning fossil fuels), acid rain is formed**When water condenses on nitrate and sulfate particles (from burning fossil fuels), acid rain is formed

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119 Rain Level Supercooled Rain Level Ice Level Snow Level BRRRR…I’m CHILLY!

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122 Orographic Effect - VIF!!!!!

123 Precipitation does not occur via the same processes everywhere. Another way that precipitation forms is OROGRAPHIC LIFTPrecipitation does not occur via the same processes everywhere. Another way that precipitation forms is OROGRAPHIC LIFT –Wind hits the windward side of the mountain, R ises, E xpands, C ools, and C ondensation occurs to form C louds and P recipitation often occurs –The air becomes saturated and the dense clouds result in precipitation on the windward and top side of the mountain. –As the air goes over the top, is sinks on the leeward side –As the air sinks, it compresses together and gets warmed by the friction of the molecules compressing together –Since the warmer air can hold more moisture, and since the air lost most of its moisture on the windward and top sides, condensation does not occur (therefore no precipitation)! This area is sometimes called a “Rain Shadow Desert” This effect occurs along the Sierra Nevada Mts. The California side is wet, the Nevada side is dry. Also, the Cascade Mountains – Seattle is wet, the rest of Washington is dry.This effect occurs along the Sierra Nevada Mts. The California side is wet, the Nevada side is dry. Also, the Cascade Mountains – Seattle is wet, the rest of Washington is dry.

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127 Orographic Effect Animation Orographic Effect Animation

128 VIF - LAKE EFFECT SNOW Great Lakes Region – NYSGreat Lakes Region – NYS cP air mass passes over the warmer & more humid lake air causing it to rise rapidly and form into cumulonimbus cloudscP air mass passes over the warmer & more humid lake air causing it to rise rapidly and form into cumulonimbus clouds HEAVY snowfall occurs rapidlyHEAVY snowfall occurs rapidly Western NYS is known as the SNOW CAPITAL of the USA!Western NYS is known as the SNOW CAPITAL of the USA! Lake effect snows diminish as the lakes freeze over.Lake effect snows diminish as the lakes freeze over.

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133 Chapter 29 Air Masses and Fronts

134 Air Masses Large areas (blobs) of the troposphere that have approximately the same weather, temperatures and humidity Air Mass Types - Named for where they develop over and come FROM Weather changes occur with changes in air masses

135 TYPES of Air Masses maritime Tropical (mT)- warm & humid airmaritime Tropical (mT)- warm & humid air continental Tropical (cT)- hot (warm) & dry aircontinental Tropical (cT)- hot (warm) & dry air maritime Polar (mP)- cold & humid airmaritime Polar (mP)- cold & humid air continental Polar (cP)- cold & dry aircontinental Polar (cP)- cold & dry air continental Arctic (cA)- very cold & dry aircontinental Arctic (cA)- very cold & dry air THESE ARE ALL LISTED IN THE ESRT’s ON PAGE 13 ON THE BOTTOM!THESE ARE ALL LISTED IN THE ESRT’s ON PAGE 13 ON THE BOTTOM! There are no mA air masses – WHY???There are no mA air masses – WHY???

136 TYPES of Air Masses – ESRT’s Page 13 Bottom

137 Please note – NY DOES NOT receive cT air masses!!!!

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139 Fronts boundary between two air massesboundary between two air masses bring changes in the weather (from west to east)bring changes in the weather (from west to east) VIF!!!! - Fronts are named for the air that is behind themVIF!!!! - Fronts are named for the air that is behind them The 4 types of fronts and their symbols are listed in the ESRT’s on Page 13 on the bottomThe 4 types of fronts and their symbols are listed in the ESRT’s on Page 13 on the bottom

140 TYPES of Fronts – ESRT’s Page 13 Bottom

141 Air Mass Army Analogy Think of air masses as an army regiment (the bulk of the army is BEHIND the frontline)Think of air masses as an army regiment (the bulk of the army is BEHIND the frontline) AT the Front there is FIGHTING and lots of VIOLENCE (stormy weather)AT the Front there is FIGHTING and lots of VIOLENCE (stormy weather) Behind the front (inside the air mass) the general sits on his duff and watches the goings-on while enjoying the nice weather!Behind the front (inside the air mass) the general sits on his duff and watches the goings-on while enjoying the nice weather!

142 FIGHTING/BATTLE FRONT - STORMS Back here…An air mass with NICE WEATHER

143 Cold Front Cold dense air pushes warm less dense air up and out of the wayCold dense air pushes warm less dense air up and out of the way Cold fronts usually move very quickly and bring short periods of showers/thunderstormsCold fronts usually move very quickly and bring short periods of showers/thunderstorms Lower temperatures are behind the frontLower temperatures are behind the front SYMBOL – the direction of the “arrows” points towards the direction the front is MOVINGSYMBOL – the direction of the “arrows” points towards the direction the front is MOVING

144 Cross Sectional View Overhead View on Map

145 Cross Section View – Why does the cold air mass stay near the ground and lift the warm air mass up?

146 Warm Front Warm air moves up and over the cold front as it slowly displaces the cold airWarm air moves up and over the cold front as it slowly displaces the cold air Warm fronts move slowly, and may bring many days of steady precipitationWarm fronts move slowly, and may bring many days of steady precipitation Higher temperatures are behind the frontHigher temperatures are behind the front SYMBOL – direction of “semi-circles” is the direction the front is movingSYMBOL – direction of “semi-circles” is the direction the front is moving

147 Cross Sectional View Overhead View on Map

148 Cross Section View – Why does the warm air mass slowly override the cold mass causing long periods of rain?

149 Stationary Front The air from the warm front and cold front meet, but do not moveThe air from the warm front and cold front meet, but do not move These fronts have similar weather conditions as warm frontsThese fronts have similar weather conditions as warm fronts SYMBOL – warm and cold fronts are moving in opposite directions, thus making a stationary conditionSYMBOL – warm and cold fronts are moving in opposite directions, thus making a stationary condition

150 Cross Section View – look at the spread out, horizontal stratus clouds

151 Occluded Front Cold air catches up to and overtakes a warm front (often squeezing it between another cold front)Cold air catches up to and overtakes a warm front (often squeezing it between another cold front) May produce precipitation for many daysMay produce precipitation for many days SYMBOL – cold and warm fronts “mix” hence the purple color - the “bumps” are also on the SAME SIDE OF THE LINE (sometimes just a mix of red & blue symbols)SYMBOL – cold and warm fronts “mix” hence the purple color - the “bumps” are also on the SAME SIDE OF THE LINE (sometimes just a mix of red & blue symbols)

152 Overhead View On Map Cross Sectional View

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154 As seen here, occluded fronts (purple) are often seen in these Low Pressure Systems (mid-latitude cyclones) that move either E or NE across the US. The cold front catches up to the warm front as they circulate in a CCW rotating low pressure system, and the occluded front is formed…

155 This is the jet stream. It moves from West to East in the US and dictates what our weather will be. What kind of air mass is being brought to NY right now?

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157 Chapter 30 WEATHER FORECASTING & SEVERE WEATHER Severe Wx BFRB Pages 125-129 Wx Forecasting Pages 130-132

158 FORECASTING

159 Station Models Used on weather maps to show the current weather conditions for a particular locationUsed on weather maps to show the current weather conditions for a particular location They are easy to read and understandThey are easy to read and understand ESRT’S Page 13 BottomESRT’S Page 13 Bottom

160 ESRT’s Page 13 Bottom

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162 The circle at the center shows the amount of cloud coverThe circle at the center shows the amount of cloud cover The “flag pole” coming out of the circle shows the direction that the wind is coming fromThe “flag pole” coming out of the circle shows the direction that the wind is coming from VIF - WINDS ARE NAMED FOR WHERE THEY COME FROM!!! Just like people, we’re from New York so we’re New Yorkers!!!!VIF - WINDS ARE NAMED FOR WHERE THEY COME FROM!!! Just like people, we’re from New York so we’re New Yorkers!!!! Each “flag” shows approximate wind speed. A half flag shows an approx. 5 knot wind, and a whole flag shows an approx. 10 knot windEach “flag” shows approximate wind speed. A half flag shows an approx. 5 knot wind, and a whole flag shows an approx. 10 knot wind *Add up the amount for all of the flags to get the total wind speed*Add up the amount for all of the flags to get the total wind speed

163 Air pressure is shown by using only the last 3 digits of the pressure in millibars (coded)Air pressure is shown by using only the last 3 digits of the pressure in millibars (coded) –Ex. 1018.6 mb = 186 on the station model To determine the air pressure from the numbers on the station model, use the following rule: (aka to decode)To determine the air pressure from the numbers on the station model, use the following rule: (aka to decode) –If the first number is 4 or less, put a 10 in front of it –If the first number is 5 or higher, put a 9 in front of it –Put the decimal point between the last two numbers

164 Ex. 892 for air pressure on the station modelEx. 892 for air pressure on the station model The first number (8) is greater than 5, so I will put a 9 in front of it (becomes 9892)The first number (8) is greater than 5, so I will put a 9 in front of it (becomes 9892) Then I put the decimal between the last two numbers (becomes 989.2 mb)Then I put the decimal between the last two numbers (becomes 989.2 mb) The correct air pressure is 989.2 mb from the number 892 on the station modelThe correct air pressure is 989.2 mb from the number 892 on the station model **Remember, per the barometer in the ESRT’s, surface air pressure is usually between 950 mb – 1040 mb**Remember, per the barometer in the ESRT’s, surface air pressure is usually between 950 mb – 1040 mb If your answer is not in this range, then it is wrong. Check your work using the barometer in the ESRT’s!If your answer is not in this range, then it is wrong. Check your work using the barometer in the ESRT’s!

165 Encode this weather data: Cross River – Cloudy, wind is from the SW at a speed of 9 mph, temp is 61°F, 58° DP, 8.0 mile visibility, pressure is 30.35 inches and falling. 61 58 8 280 \ 0

166 88 ¼ 86 862 -11\.35 Decode this Station Model!!!

167 SEVERE WEATHER ESRT Page 13

168 I: Thunderstorms small area storms formed by the strong upward movement of warm, moist airsmall area storms formed by the strong upward movement of warm, moist air usually occurs ahead of a cold front as the colder, denser air shoves the warmer air upwardusually occurs ahead of a cold front as the colder, denser air shoves the warmer air upward This forms the cumulonimbus clouds that produce thunderstormsThis forms the cumulonimbus clouds that produce thunderstorms These storms are accompanied by heavy rain, thunder, lightning, sometimes hail, and can also produce tornadoesThese storms are accompanied by heavy rain, thunder, lightning, sometimes hail, and can also produce tornadoes

169 All thunderstorms produce lightningAll thunderstorms produce lightning Lightning is the discharge of huge amounts of static electricity (think of walking across a carpet in your socks and then touching something-ZAP)Lightning is the discharge of huge amounts of static electricity (think of walking across a carpet in your socks and then touching something-ZAP) Lightning can travel from the cloud to the ground, cloud to cloud, or even from the ground to a cloud!Lightning can travel from the cloud to the ground, cloud to cloud, or even from the ground to a cloud! Thunder is the result of the air quickly expanding from the heat of the lightning bolt (causes a sound wave)Thunder is the result of the air quickly expanding from the heat of the lightning bolt (causes a sound wave) You cannot have lightning without thunder and vise versa!!You cannot have lightning without thunder and vise versa!!

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173 Supercell Thunderstorm formations – will form SEVERE storms and tornadoes! THIS IS ONE BIG STORM SYSTEM!

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177 II: Tornadoes Form from very powerful thunderstorms (cumulonimbus clouds)Form from very powerful thunderstorms (cumulonimbus clouds) These are funnel shaped columns of spiraling winds that extend down to the ground from the base of a cloudThese are funnel shaped columns of spiraling winds that extend down to the ground from the base of a cloud The winds move into a tornado (low pressure), and can reach a maximum of 318 mph!The winds move into a tornado (low pressure), and can reach a maximum of 318 mph! The actual funnel is made by water droplets (clouds) and dustThe actual funnel is made by water droplets (clouds) and dust

178 Tornadoes are especially dangerous because it is so difficult to predict where they will formTornadoes are especially dangerous because it is so difficult to predict where they will form Damage is usually along a narrow path where the tornado traveledDamage is usually along a narrow path where the tornado traveled They usually last less than one hourThey usually last less than one hour Most fatalities are caused by flying debrisMost fatalities are caused by flying debris Tornadoes are rated on the Fujita scale (F0 – F6)Tornadoes are rated on the Fujita scale (F0 – F6) An F6 is very rare, and can have wind speeds up to 318 mphAn F6 is very rare, and can have wind speeds up to 318 mph

179 This area of the US is known as “tornado alley” Why do most tornadoes in the US happen here in “tornado alley”?

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181 This is a maritime tropical air mass “mT” Cool, dry, dense air comes down from Canada This is a continental polar air mass “cP” Warm, moist, less dense air comes up from the Gulf of Mexico

182 There are seven levels in the Fujita scale, F0 - F6.

183  The 2 air masses meet at a front and the cool dense air pushes the warm less dense air up very quickly creating a horizontal tube of swirling air – think of a roll of toilet paper.  Then, this horizontal tube of swirling air may be tilted toward the vertical by some sudden updrafts of air.  This turns the spinning tube of air into a vertical funnel cloud which eventually builds strength and speed and turns into a tornado  Here is an animation…. How does the tornado funnel form? http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9007188/ns/weather-weather_news/

184 And now, some very cool pictures of tornadoes…

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186 Tornadoes are especially dangerous because it is so difficult to predict where and when they will formTornadoes are especially dangerous because it is so difficult to predict where and when they will form Damage is usually along a narrow path where the tornado traveledDamage is usually along a narrow path where the tornado traveled Most fatalities (deaths) are caused by flying debrisMost fatalities (deaths) are caused by flying debris High winds cause severe property damageHigh winds cause severe property damage Tornadoes Tornadoes – How they cause damage…

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188 NEW YORK TORNADOES!

189 Tornadoes will pick up dust and debris from the ground when they “touch down” – this creates a wider swirl at the bottom of the tornado

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192 Yes, tornadoes are very cool and interesting… But, they can also be very deadly to people and costly to the economy. What should people do to prevent loss of life and damage to structures?

193 A Government or Public emergency preparedness (before) plan for tornadoes should consist of… Warning system – TV/Radio/Internet/Sirens Emergency shelters designated before hand for people made homeless by the storm Building/Construction codes that minimize damage – ex – no mobile homes or weakly built structures

194 A Family/Personal emergency preparedness (before) plan for tornadoes should consist of… Where to go? Basement/storm cellar or an interior room with no windows like a bathroom or closet What to have? Bottled water/canned food/battery powered radio/flashlight What to do? Stay put until they announce that the danger has passed

195 III: Hurricanes – How they form Huge tropical low pressure systems that get their energy from the tremendous amount of warm ocean water that is evaporated and condensed inside the stormHuge tropical low pressure systems that get their energy from the tremendous amount of warm ocean water that is evaporated and condensed inside the storm Hurricanes MUST form over open warm ocean water (WARM WATER = FUEL FOR HURRICANE)Hurricanes MUST form over open warm ocean water (WARM WATER = FUEL FOR HURRICANE) Atlantic Ocean Hurricanes form over the warm water off of the West Coast of Africa and travel West across the Atlantic via the trade winds.Atlantic Ocean Hurricanes form over the warm water off of the West Coast of Africa and travel West across the Atlantic via the trade winds. VIF - Since this is where it gets its energy from, hurricanes weaken as they pass over land or colder water

196 Hurricanes form over the warm ocean water near the Equator on the West Coast of Africa Hurricanes – How they form

197 Hurricanes form off of the West coast of Africa and travel WEST across the Atlantic. Once they hit about 30 North latitude, they start to turn East! WHY??????

198 Since hurricanes are extreme low pressure storms, the winds blow in towards the center of the storm, and it spins counter-clockwise (in the Northern Hemisphere)Since hurricanes are extreme low pressure storms, the winds blow in towards the center of the storm, and it spins counter-clockwise (in the Northern Hemisphere) Hurricanes are associated with very high winds and heavy rainsHurricanes are associated with very high winds and heavy rains On average, hurricanes are 400 miles wideOn average, hurricanes are 400 miles wide The eye of the hurricane is the center where there are no clouds or precipitation and the weather is generally calmThe eye of the hurricane is the center where there are no clouds or precipitation and the weather is generally calm The lowest air pressures on Earth have been recorded inside the eye of hurricanesThe lowest air pressures on Earth have been recorded inside the eye of hurricanes All hurricanes are named in each ocean in alphabetical order, with alternating male and female namesAll hurricanes are named in each ocean in alphabetical order, with alternating male and female names Hurricanes – Some facts

199 A “tropical storm” is designated a “hurricane” when its winds reach 74 mph (and vice versa).A “tropical storm” is designated a “hurricane” when its winds reach 74 mph (and vice versa). Hurricanes are classified by the Saffir- Simpson Scale as Category 1 (weakest) – Category 5 (strongest)Hurricanes are classified by the Saffir- Simpson Scale as Category 1 (weakest) – Category 5 (strongest)

200 Hurricanes, Typhoons and Cyclones are all the SAME THING!!!Hurricanes, Typhoons and Cyclones are all the SAME THING!!! Different Ocean = Different NameDifferent Ocean = Different Name –Atlantic & East Pacific = Hurricane –Indian & South Pacific = Cyclone –West Pacific = Typhoon

201 The three parts of a hurricane that cause the most damage are storm surge, high winds and intense precipitationThe three parts of a hurricane that cause the most damage are storm surge, high winds and intense precipitation Storm surge is the term used for the water that a hurricane blows onto the shore, causing severe flooding and extreme property damageStorm surge is the term used for the water that a hurricane blows onto the shore, causing severe flooding and extreme property damage –Spring Tides = more severe flooding –Neap Tides = less severe flooding Most fatalities (deaths) are caused by people drowning in the storm surge (many foolish people do not evacuate areas when told to do so)!!Most fatalities (deaths) are caused by people drowning in the storm surge (many foolish people do not evacuate areas when told to do so)!! Storm surge is what caused the flooding in New Orleans and the Gulf Coast during KatrinaStorm surge is what caused the flooding in New Orleans and the Gulf Coast during Katrina Hurricanes – How they cause damage…

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203 And now, some very cool pictures of hurricanes…

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205 The “eye” of the hurricane is the center portion where there are no clouds

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210 The Eyewall of a Hurricane

211 Air Force Meteo planes fly through Eyewalls of Hurricanes to collect data to help meteorologists determine where a Hurricane will travel toward

212 Hurricane Irene – August 2011 – Note extremely powerful but extremely LARGE and able to drop a tremendous amount of precipitiation due to size and slow speed.

213 Hurricane Katrina – August 2005

214 Hurricane Katrina – August 29 th, 2005

215 Hurricane damage can range from broken windows to complete demolition of buildings. Until Katrina, Andrew was the costliest hurricane to date for the USA with a price tag of over $20 BILLION! Katrina is now estimated to have a $200 BILLION price tag!!!

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217 Yes, hurricanes are very cool and interesting… But, they can also be very deadly to people and costly to the economy. What should people do to prevent loss of life and damage to structures?

218 A Public emergency preparedness plan for hurricanes should have Warning system – TV/Radio/Internet Evacuation routes and signs so people can get out before the storm surge. Emergency shelters designated for people to go to if they can’t evacuate or they are made homeless by the storm Building/construction codes that minimize damage – ex – no mobile homes/weakly built structures Emergency equipment/ supplies ready to come in as soon as the storm is over.

219 A Family/Personal emergency preparedness plan for hurricanes should consist of… Where to go? Evacuate the area if you are in the storm surge warning area What to have? Bottled water/canned food/battery powered radio/flashlight/cash/ emergency contact numbers/extra clothes What to do? Board up the windows of your home to minimize damage Stay evacuated until given the OK by the authorities to return

220 A Family/Personal emergency preparedness plan for hurricanes should consist of… Where to go? Evacuate the area if you are in the storm surge warning area What to have? Bottled water/canned food/battery powered radio/flashlight/cash/ emergency contact numbers/extra clothes What to do? Board up the windows of your home to minimize damage Stay evacuated until given the OK by the authorities to return

221 Climate Def: Typical weather patterns observed over a number of years in a given location/area. Weather = short term Climate = long term

222 The MAJOR Factors that Affect an Area’s Climate Latitude – low (equatorial) – very hot, high (polar) – very cold, mid (temperate) – 4 seasons Elevation/altitude – low - warmer, high - cooler Mountains – on windward (wet/cool) or leeward (dry/warmer) side of mountain range – this is due to the orographic effect of air lifting over the mountain Proximity to ocean – near – moderate temp range both daily and seasonally, far – great temp range both daily and seasonally. More humid conditions. Ocean currents – what current flows by the area? A cold current (California is cooler than average for its low latitude) or a warm current Great Britain is warm for its high latitude Global air currents/circulation – weather moves west or east across that area? Brings continental (dry) air or maritime (moist) air as the winds move across the continent.


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