Presentation on theme: "RES integration into the current interconnected energy system Andrej Hanzel, managing director Centrum pre vedu a výskum,s.r.o. name: adress: state: contact:"— Presentation transcript:
RES integration into the current interconnected energy system Andrej Hanzel, managing director Centrum pre vedu a výskum,s.r.o. name: adress: state: contact:
PROS - CONS RENEWABLES
name: adress: state: contact: Renewable sources Amount of present major fuels in Earth is limited (coal, gas, crude oil, nuclear). Generation of electricity is not very environmentally friendly –SO x, NO x, solid particulars (???) is dangerous for environment –Ra wastes is still very huge problem –CO 2 is also very huge problem
name: adress: state: contact: Renewable is future of mankind The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans and land masses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoule (EJ) per year. This is more energy in one hour, than the world uses during whole year.
Sunshine-not equal across Europe (Earth)
Average yearly utilization of installed capacity is 17% Source: Institut für Solare Energieversorgungstechnik Slovakia wind 8 MW Wind turbine – limited opportunities for generation
Renewable Achilles tendon –Very low energy density Density of sunshine is 3,5-7 kWh/m 2 /day It is several hundred thousand lower energy density then in coal –Very complicated prognoses of occurrence –Consumption of electricity is often in time when generation is not possible (sun doesnt shine, wind is not flowing, water is not falling etc.). Reserve capacity is needed on base of classical fuel. Governmental support/incentives is very questionable.
Cooperation on European level
Europe is interconnected but…
Technical problems of cooperation on European level Each control area must be able: –To maintain export/import in range of ±20MWhr Basic formula for energy is: generation = consuption
Load factor present power plants is lower – cost is increasing EUR/MWhr [MWhr] Increasing of cost (EUR) Marginal cost is going up
Land Occupation Solar 26-30,000 m 2 /MW Wind 5,000 m 2 /MW Biomass 100,000 m 2 /MW Hydro 5,000 m 2 /MW Coal Fired 1,500 – 2,000 m 2 /MW (1/2 for ash deposit) Lignite 5,000 – 6,000 m 2 /MW (2/3 for ash deposit) Nuclear 500 - 600 m 2 /MW
Purchase prices/incentives for renewable TechnologyOutputEUR/MWhr Small Hydro 1-5 MW 109,08 - 61,72 Photovoltaic100kW-4MW387,65-382,61 Wind80,91 Biomass 113,1 - 144,88 Biogas1MW 96,36 - 159,85 These incentive increase retail and wholesale prices Is it generally agreed by public? Discussion didnt held yet.
What to do? Superconductivity – in room temperature solves everything –Energy storage is to be without problem with high eficiency