3 International Congress of Scientific and Social Campaign Against Cancer held in Brussels in 1936
4 Chapter 2 Known Cancer Causes -- International Congress of Scientific andSocial Campaign Against Cancer, 1936HormonesX-RadiationSolar radiationCoal tars/ sootsBenzeneCobalt-uranium mining
5 Clarence Cook Little headed the American Cancer Society until 1954, when the geneticist became the founding Director of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Tobacco Industry Research Council.In 1959, as Director of this board, he refuted an earlier assertion that he made as head of ACS that inhaling fine particles is unhealthy. He denied a link between cigarettes and illness. He claimed to believe that cancer was mostly a genetic issue. Dr. Little was just one of many medical professionals to go to work for Big Tobacco in an effort to cloud the truth about cigarette smoking.
6 Chapter 7: Saving Cigarettes Three independent research organizations conducted a nationwide poll with doctors, surgeons, and specialists in every branch of medicine. 113,597 doctors in all participated in this poll. The brand of cigarette the doctors named most often was Camel. The doctors’ recommendation of Camels lasted until the early 1950’s--- when the first rumblings about smoking and heath were beginning to surface. It was only a matter of time before the doctors began to publicly distance themselves.
8 The Secret Ingredient in Kent Cigarettes??? Crocidolite Asbestos8
9 Cell Phone Science Follows Tobacco Playbook Raise doubts about experimental findingsFund and develop studies“War Gaming” of challenging results
10 Changing Cell Phone Patterns phones per 1000 users RegionUS127683946WesternEurope609301008Asia7.1230379World2.1123319
11 Use among 1,600 13-to-15-year-olds in Belgium, Katholieke University Leuven almost 60% of students (ages 13-15) used cell phones to talk or text message after turning their lights out at bedtime.teens who used their cell phone more than once a week after lights-out were five times more likely than those who never did so to indicate fatigue and sleep difficulties.
12 Cell Signals Penetrate the Brains of Children More than Adults With Permission of Om P. Gandhi
14 SAR in plane of antenna feed point Adult10 year old5 year oldBit-Babik et al. “Simulation of Exposure and SAR Estimation for Adult and Child Heads Exposed to RF Energy from Portable Communication Devices” Radiation Research 163, (2005)
15 French Telecom Estimate of Differential Absorption of Radiofrequency with AgeWiart et al Phys Med Biol 2008;53:
16 Marketing Cell Phones For Children glowPhone Gift PackageglowPhone everything active kids and parentsneed to keep in touch during their increasinglybusy days.The glowPhone features a full color screen,built in games, customizable ringtones and wallpapersalso has a flashlight.$74.98Show Color:
18 Pew Center Estimates on Children’s cell phone patterns 63% of teenagers age have cell phonesGirls age most likely to have them (79 percent).55% of teens with cell phones use them to talk daily. 60% of teens with cell phones send text messages daily. 54% of kids age 8-12 are expected to have a cell phone in the next three years.Sources: Pew Internet & American Life Project report “Teens and Social Media”and the Center on Media and Child Health, 2008
19 Changing Use of Cell Phones in U.S. Children/Young Adults 2008 20% of seven year olds40-60% of middle school childrenChanging use patternsThe average cell phone call in 2003 lasted 2.87 minutes, and the average monthly bill was $49.91.Growing marketing to children
20 Changing Patterns of Cell Phone Use in Teenagers No students had their own mobile phones 20 years ago2008 more than three-fourths of all teens age possess cell phones
22 Cell phone use among children Children are a sensitive population:For most tumors and a large number of carcinogens there is an inverse association between age at exposure and development of the disease.Children can experience a long latency period between exposure and development of the disease.Sadetzki, 2009
23 MOBI-KIDS Collaborative Project. “Risk of brain cancer from exposure to radiofrequency fields in childhood and adolescence”[Collaborative Project of the Seventh Framework ProgrammeTheme Environment (including climate change) – ]Childhood brain cancer from exposure to radiofrequency fields in childhood and adolescenceCollaborative Project.EC grant – topic of call: Health impacts of exposure to RF fields in childhood and adolescence (ENV )
25 (Vriheid M, Occup Environ Med 2006) Detailed data on cell phone use (duration & frequency of calls, side of use, use while moving, use of handset and handheld devices, use in urban & rural areas)r=0.7
26 “Based on the largest number of benign PGT patients reported to date, our results suggest an association between cellular phone use and PGTs”.This research was funded by The Israel Cancer Association
27 Cellular phone use & the risk of benign & malignant Parotid Gland Tumors – a nationwide case-control studyConsistent elevated risks were shown in complementary analyses restricted to conditions that may yield higher levels of exposure:After 5 y of cellphone use, an increase of 34% was observed in the risk to develop a tumor, in the same side of the head where the cell phone was held.For ipsilateral use, an excess risk of about 50% was observed in the highest category of use.An excess risk was found among cell phones heavy users in rural areas characterized by a relatively small number of antennas.(Sadetzki S, Am J Epidemiol 2008)
28 Sadetzki INTERPHONE study: % of cellphone heavy users (upper quintile) by centerSadetzkiInterphone upper quintile=735hIsrael upper quintile=1324hInterphone upper quintile=12800Israel upper quintile=25328 calls
31 Interphone Release, October 8, 2008 No increased risk meningioma, parotid gland tumorsDoubled risk of gliomas in Denmark, France, Germany, Japan with 10 yrs of useSome increase in acoustic neuroma
32 Acoustic Neuroma Meta-analysis Han et al., 2009 Cell phone use for at least 10 years had a 2.4-fold of acoustic neuroma (95% CI = )
33 Need for Industry Records for independent evaluation reduce recall bias and increase statistical powerconduct retrospective analyses of first adopters & typical SAR with geocodingevaluate impacts on children and teenagersadvise regarding engineering redesign
34 Existing Studies Biased Toward Null Insufficient latency time. The time between exposure and diagnosis of a brain tumor, similar to smoking and lung cancer could be several decades. "Regular" cellphone use is defined as once a week for 6 months or more. Would you expect to find lung cancer in a smoker who had smoked for once a week for 6 months or more? No young adults or children included. Because their brains are more susceptible, they are likely to be vulnerable.
35 Methodological Critiques Cellphones used in rural areas radiate more power than in urban areas. Studies have not included rural users.Cordless phones are similar to cellphones yet cordless phones users are treated as unexposed. People who die before they can be interviewed are excluded. This underestimates risks of most deadly brain tumors.Interviews conducted in hospital after surgeryRecall bias (imperfect memory). An Interphone study, using billing records, has shown that light users underestimate their use and heavy user overestimates their use.
36 Cell Phone Studies Industry Effect No Effect Total Funded (42%)(32%) (68%)Non-Industry (58%)Funded (70%) (30%)Total (54%) (46%)c2 = (p< .001) Odds ratio=0.2 an industry funded study is 1/5 as likely to report a positive finding compared to an independent one (1/29/04) Source: Lai and Richter
37 Biological Plausibility Alters heat shock proteinsIncreases permeability of blood, brain barrierEpigenetic effects on methylation and DNA repairSome thermal effects
38 Ethical Questions??Apparent release of peer review to attorneys engaged in litigation
41 Department of Health “Mobile phones & Health” Leaflet (October 2006 ) If you use a mobile phone, you can choose to minimize your exposure to radio waves.keep your calls shortconsider relative SAR values when buying a new phone.Radio waves above a certain level can cause heating effects to the body. International guidelines have been set to keep exposure to radio waves below that level.The UK has a ban on handheld cell phone use while driving.
42 U.K. Advice (continued)For children and young people (under the age of 16), the UK Chief Medical Officers strongly advise:use mobile phones for essential purposes onlykeep all calls short - talking for long periods prolongs exposure and should be discouragedThe UK CMOs recommend that if parents want to reduce potential risks to children they should restrict children’s use of mobile phones.
44 The Israeli Ministry of Health – Recommendations for cell phone use (July 2008) “In general, the Israeli Ministry of Health embraces the guidelines published by most international entities, which recommend following the precautionary principle in relation to mobile phone use. Accordingly, the Israeli Ministry of Health recommends the following:”Use of a speaker/hands free device or earphones. Reducing the number and duration of cell phone calls is another simple way of decreasing the exposure.In areas where the reception is weak, the exposure level increases. Therefore, one should talk less in these areas.It is highly recommended that the precautionary rules be followed by children, who are in general, more sensitive to develop cancer following exposure to carcinogenic factors.While driving, it is best to speak as little as possible and, in any case, to follow regulation B28.(2008)
45 Center for Environmental Oncology University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute – Recommendations for cell phone use (July 2008)“Precautionary Principle”Use of a speaker/hands free device or earphones. Reducing the number and duration of cell phone calls is another simple way of decreasing the exposure.In areas where the reception is weak, the exposure level increases. Therefore, one should talk less in these areas.It is highly recommended that the precautionary rules be followed by children, who are in general, more sensitive to develop cancer following exposure to carcinogenic factors.(2008)
46 UK, Department of Health “Mobile phones & Health” Leaflet (October 2006 ) Gaps in scientific knowledge led the Stewart Group to recommend a precautionary approach to the use of mobile phones and base stations.
47 French Government Proposed Restrictions on Cell Phones, January, 2009 Ban advertising to children under 12Ban design of phones to be used by those under six.Handsets must be sold with phonesCity of Lyon official advertising campaign to discourage the use of the phones by children.47
48 Finnish Authorities Warn of Cell Phone Risks to Children and Those with Pacemakers Use text messages rather than callsUse hands-free devices, with phone kept away from the body,Avoid talking in an area with low connectivityDisruption of pacemakers is usually harmless, but can increase heart beat48
49 Finnish Authorities Warn of Cell Phone Risks to Children “Although research todate, has notdemonstrated healtheffects from mobilephone’s radiation,precaution isrecommended forchildren as all of theeffects are not known.”49
50 Many governments advise against children using cell phones: EnglandFranceGermanyIsraelFinlandBangalore, India50
54 Truth is Stranger Than Fiction “Gentlemen, practice these words in front of the mirror: Although we are constantly exploring the subject, currently there is no direct evidence that links cell phone usage to brain cancer.”54
55 For more information visit: preventingcancernow.orgewg.orgthesimplebody.comdevradavis.com55
56 Center for Environmental Oncology Leadership and Staff Ronald B. Herberman, MD, Director of UPCI Cancer CentersDevra Lee Davis, PhD. MPH, DirectorMaryann Donovan,MPH,PhD,Scientific DirectorEvelyn Talbott, PhD, EpidemiologyJoel Weissfeld, MD, EpidemiologyMonica Han, PhD, Post-Doctoral FellowSteven Bodnar, MS, Greening/Community AssessmentMary Platt, MBA, Center Administrator
57 Martin Luther King, Jr. Cowardice asks the question, “Is it safe?” Expediency asks the questions, “Is it politic?”But Conscience asks the question: “Is it right?”And there comes a time when one must take a position that is neither safe, nor politic, nor popular, but he must do it because Conscience tells him it is right.”57