2 Watson & CrickJames Watson and Francis Crick described the structure of the DNA molecule as a double helixTheir work was aided by pictures of the DNA molecule taken Rosalind Franklin.In 1962 Crick & Watson received the Nobel Prize for their pioneering work on the structure of the DNA molecule.
3 DNA- The molecule of Heredity We have already learned a little on DNAWe know it is a complex polymer called a nucleic acidWe know that nucleic acids are made up of smaller base units called nucleotides.
4 DNA nucleotides A DNA nucleotide is made up of three main parts Deoxyribose (simple sugar)Phosphate groupNitrogen baseThere are 4 basesAdenine – ACytosine- CThymine- TGuanine- G
5 DNA Bases Adenine (A) pairs with Thymine (T) Guanine (G) pairs with Cytosine (C)
7 Chains of NucleotidesIn DNA nucleotides do not exist as individual moleculesMany nucleotides are connected to make nucleic acidsNucleotides combined to form two long chains (making one molecule)Each chain of nucleotides contains single nucleotides connected to each other
8 Structure of DNAChain of nucleotides, the sugar of one nucleotides is joined to the phosphate group of the next nucleotide by a covalent bond.The two chains of nucleotides in a DNA molecule are held together by hydrogen bonds between the bases.This pairing produces a long, two stranded molecule. The sides of the ladder are formed by the sugar and phosphate units, while the rungs of the ladder are the pairs of bases.Not only is the DNA molecule in the form of a ladder but it is twisted into a double helix.