Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Cultural diversity"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 2: Cultural diversity Mrs. Hansen/ SociologyChapter 2: Cultural diversity
2 Section 1: The Meaning of Culture What is Culture?Material Vs. Non materialCars, clothes, computers, cell phones, books, buildingsBeliefs, family patterns, ideas, language, political and economic systems
3 Society Vs. Culture Sociologist distinguish between the two Society =peopleCulture= material and non material products that people create
4 Components of Culture: TechnologySymbolsLanguageValuesNorms
5 Technology Physical objects and the rules for using those objects Using tools requires knowledge of various skillsSociologist interested in skills but the rules of acceptable behavior when using material culture
6 SymbolsThrough symbols we create culture and communicate it to group members and future generationsSymbols have a shared meaning attached to themAny word, gesture, image, sound, physical object, event, or element of the natural worldEveryone must understand the symbol in order for it to have meaning!
7 Language:Organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized systemUsed daily to communicate and express ideas
8 Values:Shared Beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirableThe type of value held by a group help to determine the character of its people and the kinds of material and nonmaterial culture they createThe Yanomamo and the San people
9 NormsShared rules of conduct that tell people how act in specific situationsThese are expectations for behavior not the actual behaviorNorms range in importanceCovering your mouth when you yawnDon’t kill another human beingSome apply to everyone others apply to select groupsMarriage
10 Folkways Mores Laws Norms without great moral significance Norms with a lot of moral significanceLawsWritten norms enacted and enforced by governments that must be followed
11 Examining Culture Norms are Dynamic instead of Static Sociologists break down culture into levels and studying them separatelyThree LevelsCulture TraitsCulture ComplexesCulture Patterns
12 Culture Traits Simplest level of culture An individual tool, act, or belief that is related to a particular situation or need.Using utensils when eatingSpecific greetings when meeting people
13 Culture Complexes: Individual Culture traits combine to form complexes A cluster of interrelated traitsExample = FootballThe ball, measuring chain, gear, and benches are the material traitsKicking, passing, running, catching, blocking and tackling are the acts of footballThere are also beliefs like following the rules, etc.In an industrial society a variety of Complexes exist and can be studied
14 Culture Patterns Complexes combine to form patterns The combination of a number of culture complexesExample=Football, baseball, basketball, soccer, swimming, tennis and track combine to form the American athletic patternOther examples are related to specific areas of societyAgriculture, religion, education, family life, and manufacturing
15 All of these combine to form a society’s culture!!!