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Explaining the segmented Europeanization of national public spheres Katharina Kleinen-v.Königslöw Presenting concepts and results from the research project.

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Presentation on theme: "Explaining the segmented Europeanization of national public spheres Katharina Kleinen-v.Königslöw Presenting concepts and results from the research project."— Presentation transcript:

1 Explaining the segmented Europeanization of national public spheres Katharina Kleinen-v.Königslöw Presenting concepts and results from the research project The Transnationalization of Public Spheres in Europe Collaborative Research Centre Transformations of the State, Bremen A European Public Sphere and the EUs Democratic Deficit: Where are we now? Research, Practical and Policy Implications Conference at Bristol University, 3 rd -4 th of November, 2008 by ESRC project EU constitutionalism and Public Claims-Making over Europe

2 Structure of the presentation 1.Main results of our content analysis on national public spheres 2.Explaining segmented Europeanization: concepts 3.Explaining segmented Europeanization: methods 4.Notes from the field: Austria 5.Conclusion

3 Analyzing the Europeanization of national public sphere as a multi-dimensional process Result of the process of Europeanization of national public spheres European public sphere Monitoring governance (1) Visibility of the EU and debate of its policies Convergence of discourse (2) Common timing, priming and framing of issues Discursive integration (3) Mutual observation and discursive exchange Collective identification (4) A participants perspective in a European discourse 4 Dimensions of Europeanization =

4 The research design: Longitudinal analysis of newspaper content Newspapers Longitudinal cross-sectional standardized content analysis Austria: Die Presse Denmark:Politiken France:Le Monde Germany:Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Great Britain: The Times Articles All discursive articles in the political section: Editorials/Commentaries Interviews Contributions from external authors News analysis and background articles Time period representative (constructed) weeks per year The sample includes 3059 articles: FAZ 769, Le Monde 534, The Times 598, Die Presse 604 and Politiken 554. A reliability test that was performed for 100 randomly chosen articles across all eight coders showed satisfactory values for all variables (kappa between 0.63 and 0.91). Poland:Gazeta Wyborcza Gazeta Wyborcza: Coming soon: 2008 Coming soon: tabloids

5 Visibility of EU institutions increases in all analyzed newspapers, especially in Le Monde. EU institutions strongly gain importance in Die Presse after Austrias accession to the EU. FAZ Die Presse Le Monde The Times Politike n Share of Articles Referring to EU Institutions - by Newspaper Source: Representative sample of discursive articles in FAZ, Le Monde, The Times, Die Presse and Politiken for the years 1982, 1989, 1996 and 2003 (N=2594). Increased Monitoring of EU governance Gazeta Wyborcza Gazeta Wyborcza (N=971)

6 The horizon of public debate does not expand systematically between 1982 and Share of speakers from other European countries – by newspaper Source: Speakers in representative sample of discursive articles in FAZ, Le Monde, The Times, Die Presse and Politiken for the years 1982, 1989, 1996 and 2003 (N=2640) No increase in cross-border discussion FAZ Die Presse Le Monde The Times Politiken Gazeta Wyborcza Gazeta Wyborcza (N=1112)

7 The share of European We-references slightly increases in all newspapers, except in Poland. Share of We-References Source: We-References in representative sample of discursive articles in FAZ, Le Monde, The Times, Die Presse and Politiken for the years 1982, 1989, 1996 and 2003 (N=1510) Slight increase in collective identification with Europe European National Western Gazeta Wyborcza (N=759)

8 Two main explananda: Growing vertical Europeanization (on different levels): –What triggers articles on EU politics? trigger study –Has the new orientation of the EU information policy under commisioner Margot Wallström had an impact on vertical Europeanization? EU-PR-study –Have the different national discourse cultures an impact on the receptiveness for EU topics? explorative country studies, trigger study Stagnation of horizontal Europeanization (on different levels): –Can differences in attention paid to other European countries be explained by the different national discourse cultures? explorative country studies

9 1980today Monitoring Brussels Cross-Border Discussion Identification with Europe Source: Wessler, Hartmut et al. (2008): Transnationalization of Public Spheres. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Main result: Nationally segmented Europeanization of public spheres

10 Explanandum 1: Growing vertical Europeanization (but on different levels) Monitoring Brussels Increasing political impact of EU PR activities of EU Poltical discourse culture 1 Political discourse culture 2 Political discourse culture 3

11 Growing vertical Europeanization (on different levels) Explanandum 2: Stagnated horizontal Europeanization (on different levels) Cross-border discussion Increasing political impact of other European countries no coordinated PR activities Political discourse culture 1 Political discourse culture 2 Political discourse culture 3

12 How to explain segmented Europeanization I: Driving forces of Europeanization Growing impact of EU politics Driving forces EU Public Relation activities Tools of analysis Growing impact of politics of other European countries [no coordinated PR activities] Vertical Horizontal Direction Trigger study EU-PR study: input/output analysis

13 How to explain segmented Europeanization II: Filters of Europeanization Editorial cultures Filters Political discourse cultures Tools of analysis Vertical + horizontal Direction Trigger study Explorative country field study Newsroom study Political discourse culture = A specific thickening of cultural patterns of producing, representing and appropriating political communication as well as the regulation of and the identification within these processes. (Hepp/Wessler 2008) Re-analysis of media content Editorial culture = The organization-related totality of cultural patterns in media production which manifest themselves in practices, interpretations and norms influencing and guiding decisions in a specific newsroom.

14 The research design: Trigger study, newsroom study and explorative country field study Newspapers Austria: Die Presse, Kronenzeitung, Der Standard, Kleine Zeitung Denmark:Politiken, Ekstra Bladet, Berlingske Tidende, Jyske Vestkysten France:Le Monde, Le Parisien/Aujourdhui, Le Figaro, Ouest France Germany:FAZ, Bild, Süddeutsche Ztg, Westdeutsche Allgemeine Ztg. Great Britain: The Times, Daily Express, Guardian, Manchester Evening News Poland:Gazeta Wyborcza, Fakt, Rzeczpospolita, Dziennik Zachodni Time periodOctober 13th – November 16th 2008 Trigger study (ext. sample) semi-standardized telephone interviews on trigger and editorial process for a) four articles on EU politics and b) four articles on politics of other European countries per newspaper Newsroom study (core sample) one week observation of editorial decision and production processes concerning EU and foreign news interviews with editors responsible for a) EU news and b) foreign news Explorative country field study four weeks of media diaries (on political news and discussion in newspapers, magazines, radio and TV)

15 Editorial cultures in relation to EU news and discussion Notes from the field: Austria Type 1: regular EU section Editor responsible for EU news correspondent in Brussels Type 2: no regular EU section no editor responsible for EU news correspondent in Brussels Type 4: Regular Anti-EU section (but only of letters to the editor) no editor responsible for EU news no correspondent in Brussels Type 3: no regular EU section no editor responsible for EU news no correspondent in Brussels

16 Notes from the field: Austria Editorial cultures in relation to EU news and discussion Criteria Editorial mission Regular EU section Editor responsible for EU news Type 1 Pro EU x x Correspondent in Brusselsx Type 2 Pro EU no x Type 3 unclear no Type 4 Anti EU x (Anti) no Most comprehensive coverage of EU in all sections Not only event-, but also topic-driven coverage comprehensive coverage of EU, mostly event-driven little coverage of EU, only event-driven little coverage of EU, discussion only Anti-EU

17 Thank you for your attention! For further information please consult our website: The project The transnationalization of public spheres in Europe is funded by the German Research Foundation and is headed by Prof. Dr. Andreas Hepp (until 12/2007 by Prof. Dr. Hartmut Wessler). The project members are: Dr. Michael Brüggemann, Katharina Kleinen- v.Königslöw, Swantje Lingenberg and Johanna Möller.


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