Presentation on theme: "WHO PARTICIPATES? The dynamics of inclusion and exclusion Women migrants and ethnic minority women as vulnerable groups in Europe Joanna Legg."— Presentation transcript:
WHO PARTICIPATES? The dynamics of inclusion and exclusion Women migrants and ethnic minority women as vulnerable groups in Europe Joanna Legg
Introduction: Who participates? Stratification of citizenship statuses and attendant rights with integration. Research, e.g. - Commission Draft Report on Social Inclusion 2001 - European Parliament Report on the Situation of Women from Minority Groups 2004 - Commission Report on Social Inclusion in Europe 2006 - Commission Report on Gender Inequalities in the risks of Poverty and Social Exclusion 2006 identifies migrant and minorities as at risk.
Lisbon Treaty: Democratic principles outline: The rights of citizens - to participate in the democratic life of the Union - to make known publicly and exchange their views in all areas of Union action and institutional responsibilities - to maintain an open, transparent and regular dialogue with representative associations and civil society. [Articles 8A-3, 8B-1 and 8B-2 respectively]. Absence of direct commitment to migrants and minorities.
Ideological constructions, exclusion and gendered regulations: The migrant as a lone male worker, with temporary residency, women as secondary migrants [Kofman: 2003, Morokvasic: 1993]. Impacts upon migration, residency, family and employment regulations; migrant and minority women lack substantive rights. Political exclusion, which involves the denial of rights to participate in decisions about the organisation of society, including the right to vote and take part in political organisations [and] community associations [Kofman & Sales: 2001] The public-private divide [Lister] exacerbated by the cultural reproducer role [Andall: 2003,Yuval-Davis: 1997]. Impacts upon womens participation in political sphere and social invisibility [Samers: 1997], commitments to widening democratic process and more participatory forms of democracy remain rhetorical.
Indirect mechanisms of exclusion: Lack of gendered analysis results in failure to recognise implicit sex discrimination. Within migrant and minority groups, women much more likely to: - join spouses under reunification or formation schemes - have precarious employment - work in the informal sector - have caring responsibilities. Women disproportionately disadvantaged in attempting to acquire citizenship status. Lack a platform to participate and actively engage with EU policy- makers.
Incoherence in EU policy & the necessity of gender-mainstreaming: 2004 European Parliament Report on Situation of Women from Minority Groups, positive prescription for action: involving migrant women in political life and decision-making processes. But, later reports, such as 2006 Commission Report on Social Exclusion admits to limited involvement… of key agencies active in the field. Need for coherence, convergence, awareness of obstacles to participation and gender mainstreaming.