Presentation on theme: "Innovation Processes in Developing Countries Specificities and Policy Issues for Inclusive Development Judith Sutz, Universidad de la República, Uruguay."— Presentation transcript:
Innovation Processes in Developing Countries Specificities and Policy Issues for Inclusive Development Judith Sutz, Universidad de la República, Uruguay EULAKS Summer School The role of social sciences in the construction of knowledge based societies: Latin American and European perspectives
The role of social sciences in the construction of knowledge based societies ¿Which social sciences? Knowledge based societies: what do we mean by that? Knowledge based societies or capitalist knowledge based societies: does this distinction make sense? Some prefere learning economies or learning societies: what do we think?
Sessions outline A combination of approaches to innovation and to development A historical view Looking into innovation and into national innovation systems from the South Some key questions regarding innovation in developing countries Development: what are we talking about? Innovation and social inclusiveness Innovation policies for inclusive development
Innovation is somehow related to knowledge? If yes, some exploration must be done on the production of knowledge, on how it has evolved, and if something can be said relating knowledge, innovation and divergence in the patterns of development
Questions What kind of indicators can we use as a proxy to the state of the wedding of science to the useful arts? Where can we find those indicators? Lets give a look to the current situation...
Some people say that the problem is not just numbers but culture: the South would be less science and technologically oriented than the North Is that true? (Sakiko Fukuda-Parr,Harvard University and UNDP)
We can accept that, in general terms, developing countries have a structural problem related to knowledge production and innovation How should we think about this issue?
STI issues need to be thought with our own heads
A brief digression In 1926, while Einstein and Heisenberg discussed in Berlin about the nature of reality, shaked by the hypothesis of quantum mechanics, Einstein told the 24 year old theoretical phycisist that it is the theory that decides what we can observe. Just think about that: which theories will allow us to properly observe knowledge production and innovation in developing countries?
It has been said (Lundvall and Johnson) that: If knowledge is the most important resource, then Learning is the most important social process But, what implies learning?
With two variables it is possible to fix a point in a map: where are the different countries located in such a map today? México?India? Finland?Denmark? South Korea? France? USA? Venezuela? Brazil?Uruguay? Spain?Chile? Argentina?UK?
What can we tell from such a map? That between the developed countries and the developing countries there is a divide: a learning divide That this divide can be crossed in a relatively short period That to be able to cross the learning divide learning by studying and learning by solving, both, must be fostered
A not so visible trend: the difficulties that developing countries face to use creatively the knowledge and innovation capabilities they have This is a key challenge It is not new It is related to the entire realm of social sciences We need to think deeply over this problem